Recent trends in advanced oxidation process-based degradation of erythromycin: Pollution status, eco-toxicity and degradation mechanism in aquatic ecosystems

Ashraf, Aniqa
Liu, Guijian
Yousaf, Balal
Arif, Muhammad
Ahmed, Rafay
Irshad, Samina
Cheema, Ayesha Imtiyaz
Rashid, Audil
Gulzaman, Humaira
Wide spread documentation of antibiotic pollution is becoming a threat to aquatic environment. Erythromycin (ERY), a macrolide belonging antibiotic is at the top of this list with its concentrations ranging between ng/L to a few mu g/L in various global waterbodies giving rise to ERY-resistance genes (ERY-RGs) and ERY- resistance bacteria (ERY-RBs) posing serious threat to the aquatic organisms. ERY seems resistant to various conventional water treatments, remained intact and even increased in terms of mass loads after treatment. Enhanced oxidation potential, wide pH range, elevated selectivity, adaptability and greater efficiency makes advance oxidation processes (AOPs) top priority for degrading pollutants with aromatic rings and unsaturated bonds like ERY. In this manuscript, recent developments in AOPs for ERY degradation are reported along with the factors that affect the degradation mechanism. ERY, marked as a risk prioritized macrolide antibiotic by 2015 released European Union watch list, most probably due to its protein inhibition capability considered third most widely used antibiotic. The current review provides a complete ERY overview including the environmental entry sources, concentration in global waters, ERY status in STPs, as well as factors affecting their functionality. Along with that this study presents complete outlook regarding ERY-RGs and provides an in depth detail regarding ERYs potential threats to aquatic biota. This study helps in figuring out the best possible strategy to tackle antibiotic pollution keeping ERY as a model antibiotic because of extreme toxicity records. (C) 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V.


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Citation Formats
A. Ashraf et al., “Recent trends in advanced oxidation process-based degradation of erythromycin: Pollution status, eco-toxicity and degradation mechanism in aquatic ecosystems,” SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, pp. 0–0, 2021, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: