Animal Exploitation at The Late Pleistocene- Holocene Transition in Upper Mesopotamia (10.900 – 7.700 CAL. BC) With A Focus on A Proposed Hunter-Gatherer Crisis

Torun, Ahmet Onur
This study focuses on the archaeofaunal data from early prehistoric communities in Upper Mesopotamia (Euphrates, Tigris and Urfa regions) to understand whether the changing settlement pattern was interlinked with the changing climatic conditions. So far, many studies were undertaken on ecological data to understand the human subsistence strategies, but unfortunately, these studies focused on one settlement, one species of animals or one targeted question. In this study, environmental data on climate are reviewed to create a clear picture of the climatic conditions that prevailed during the transitions from Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene. Having reviewed prehistoric climate patterns, this study proceeds with the revaluation of 14C samples/dates from settlements aiming to clarify uncertainities in dating and understand the continuity/disruption of settlement patterns. Foremost, the main focus on this study is the review of published archaeofaunal data from selected Epipalaeolithic and Early Neolithic communities from Euphrates and Tigris. Here I use site-specific faunal data to understand which animals were consumed and to what proportions through time. It is expected that by examining together the faunal data and the recreated past climatic conditions within the time range derived from the 14C v dates, we will reach a better understanding of a potential PPNA hunter-gatherer crisis in this region.


Archaeogenomic analysis of the first steps of Neolithization in Anatolia and the Aegean
Kilinc, Gulsah Merve; KOPTEKIN, Dilek; Atakuman, Çiğdem; SUMER, Arev Pelin; DONERTAS, Handan Melike; YAKA, Reyhan; Bilgin, Cemal Can; BÜYÜKKARAKAYA, ALİ METİN; Baird, Douglas; ALTINISIK, Ezgi; FLEGONTOV, Pavel; Gotherstrom, Anders; TOGAN, Inci; Somel, Mehmet (2017-11-29)
The Neolithic transition in west Eurasia occurred in two main steps: the gradual development of sedentism and plant cultivation in the Near East and the subsequent spread of Neolithic cultures into the Aegean and across Europe after 7000 cal BCE. Here, we use published ancient genomes to investigate gene flow events in west Eurasia during the Neolithic transition. We confirm that the Early Neolithic central Anatolians in the ninth millennium BCE were probably descendants of local hunter-gatherers, rather th...
Architectural Discourse and Social Transformation During the Early Neolithic of Southeast Anatolia
Atakuman, Çiğdem (2014-03-01)
Within the Near Eastern research canon, the transition to more sedentary lifestyles during the Neolithic is often framed as an economic necessity, linked to plant and animal domestication, climatic change and population stress. In such a framework, an increasingly complex social structure, arising in response to the increasingly complex relations of agricultural production, is presumed. For example, some researchers would argue that feasting-based rituals became an arena of social control and an increasingl...
Archaeogenomic analysis of population genetic relationships and kinship patterns in the sedentary societies from neolithic anatolia
Yaka, Reyhan; Somel, Mehmet; Özer, Füsun; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (2020-1-12)
The Neolithic way of life first emerged in the Fertile Crescent (c.10thand early 9thmillennium cal BCE) and quickly spread to neighbouring regionssuch as Central Anatoliaand Cyprus,and eventually further westwards. This transition involved to fundamental changes in human lifestyle,with the first emergence of villages during the early Neolithicandthe later the growing reliance on farming and herdingduring the late Neolithic periods. Changes in the social organization of sedentary communi...
Ancient genomics in Neolithic Central Anatolia and Çatalhöyük
Yaka, Reyhan; Doğu, Ayça; Kaptan, Damla; Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad; Chyleński, Maciej; Vural, Kıvılcım Başak; Altınışık, Nefize Ezgi; Mapelli, Igor; Koptekin, Dilek; Karamurat, Cansu; Gemici, Hasan Can; Yorulmaz, Sevgi; Lagerholm, Vendela Kempe; Fer, Evrim; Işıldak, Ulaş; Ghalichi, Ayshin; Kılınç, Gülşah Merve; Mazzucato, Camilla; Juras, Anna; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Clark S.; Pilloud, Marin; Haddow, Scott D.; Knüsel, Christopher J.; Togan, İnci; Götherström, Anders; Erdal, Yılmaz Selim; Sürer, Elif; Özer, Füsun; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Somel, Mehmet (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 2021-01-01)
Over multiple millennia, from the earliest traces of long-term occupation of camp sites (ca 20,000 BC) to the development of full-scale farming (ca 8000–6000 BC), the Neolithic transition in southwest Asia gradually shaped human societies in dramatic ways (Nadel 2002; Maher et al. 2012; Asouti, Fuller 2013). Here we present recent insights from ancient genomics studies into these societies while focusing on two questions: the population processes driving cultural change in Neolithic central Anatolia and gen...
Geoarchaeological investigations around Kültepe (Kayseri)
Ömeroğlu, Işıl; Toprak, G. M. Vedat; Kulakoğlu, Fikri; Department of Geological Engineering (2011)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of geology on ancient Kültepe settlement located in a tectonically active area, namely Sarımsaklı basin, shaped by Central Anatolian Fault Zone. Four main data sources used in this study are geological map, digital elevation model (DEM), slip plane and the borehole data. Geological maps are used for the determination of key horizons and the faults shaping the basin. Slip data measured in the field are used to identify the nature of the faults. Borehole ...
Citation Formats
A. O. Torun, “Animal Exploitation at The Late Pleistocene- Holocene Transition in Upper Mesopotamia (10.900 – 7.700 CAL. BC) With A Focus on A Proposed Hunter-Gatherer Crisis,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2021.