Animal Exploitation at The Late Pleistocene- Holocene Transition in Upper Mesopotamia (10.900 – 7.700 CAL. BC) With A Focus on A Proposed Hunter-Gatherer Crisis

Torun, Ahmet Onur
This study focuses on the archaeofaunal data from early prehistoric communities in Upper Mesopotamia (Euphrates, Tigris and Urfa regions) to understand whether the changing settlement pattern was interlinked with the changing climatic conditions. So far, many studies were undertaken on ecological data to understand the human subsistence strategies, but unfortunately, these studies focused on one settlement, one species of animals or one targeted question. In this study, environmental data on climate are reviewed to create a clear picture of the climatic conditions that prevailed during the transitions from Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene. Having reviewed prehistoric climate patterns, this study proceeds with the revaluation of 14C samples/dates from settlements aiming to clarify uncertainities in dating and understand the continuity/disruption of settlement patterns. Foremost, the main focus on this study is the review of published archaeofaunal data from selected Epipalaeolithic and Early Neolithic communities from Euphrates and Tigris. Here I use site-specific faunal data to understand which animals were consumed and to what proportions through time. It is expected that by examining together the faunal data and the recreated past climatic conditions within the time range derived from the 14C v dates, we will reach a better understanding of a potential PPNA hunter-gatherer crisis in this region.


Ancient genomics in Neolithic Central Anatolia and Çatalhöyük
Yaka, Reyhan; Doğu, Ayça; Kaptan, Damla; Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad; Chyleński, Maciej; Vural, Kıvılcım Başak; Altınışık, Nefize Ezgi; Mapelli, Igor; Koptekin, Dilek; Karamurat, Cansu; Gemici, Hasan Can; Yorulmaz, Sevgi; Lagerholm, Vendela Kempe; Fer, Evrim; Işıldak, Ulaş; Ghalichi, Ayshin; Kılınç, Gülşah Merve; Mazzucato, Camilla; Juras, Anna; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Clark S.; Pilloud, Marin; Haddow, Scott D.; Knüsel, Christopher J.; Togan, İnci; Götherström, Anders; Erdal, Yılmaz Selim; Sürer, Elif; Özer, Füsun; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Somel, Mehmet (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 2021-01-01)
Over multiple millennia, from the earliest traces of long-term occupation of camp sites (ca 20,000 BC) to the development of full-scale farming (ca 8000–6000 BC), the Neolithic transition in southwest Asia gradually shaped human societies in dramatic ways (Nadel 2002; Maher et al. 2012; Asouti, Fuller 2013). Here we present recent insights from ancient genomics studies into these societies while focusing on two questions: the population processes driving cultural change in Neolithic central Anatolia and gen...
Archaeogenomic analysis of the first steps of Neolithization in Anatolia and the Aegean
Kilinc, Gulsah Merve; KOPTEKIN, Dilek; Atakuman, Çiğdem; SUMER, Arev Pelin; DONERTAS, Handan Melike; YAKA, Reyhan; Bilgin, Cemal Can; BÜYÜKKARAKAYA, ALİ METİN; Baird, Douglas; ALTINISIK, Ezgi; FLEGONTOV, Pavel; Gotherstrom, Anders; TOGAN, Inci; Somel, Mehmet (2017-11-29)
The Neolithic transition in west Eurasia occurred in two main steps: the gradual development of sedentism and plant cultivation in the Near East and the subsequent spread of Neolithic cultures into the Aegean and across Europe after 7000 cal BCE. Here, we use published ancient genomes to investigate gene flow events in west Eurasia during the Neolithic transition. We confirm that the Early Neolithic central Anatolians in the ninth millennium BCE were probably descendants of local hunter-gatherers, rather th...
Climate variability and deep water mass characteristics in the Aegean Sea
Georgiou, S.; Mantziafou, A.; Sofianos, S.; Gertman, I.; Ozsoy, E.; Somot, S.; Vervatis, V. (2015-01-15)
The main objective of this study is to investigate the variability of the thermohaline characteristics of the deep-water masses in the Aegean Sea and the possible impact of the regional atmospheric forcing variability by analyzing the available oceanographic and atmospheric datasets for the period of 1960-2012. During this period the variability of the deep water characteristics of the Aegean sub-basins is found to be very large as well as the diversity of the deep water characteristics among the sub-basins...
The Demographic Development of the First Farmers in Anatolia
Kilinc, Gulsah Merve; et. al. (2016-10-10)
The archaeological documentation of the development of sedentary farming societies in Anatolia is not yet mirrored by a genetic understanding of the human populations involved, in contrast to the spread of farming in Europe [1-3]. Sedentary farming communities emerged in parts of the Fertile Crescent during the tenth millennium and early ninth millennium calibrated (cal) BC and had appeared in central Anatolia by 8300 cal BC [4]. Farming spread into west Anatolia by the early seventh millennium cal BC and q...
Climate change effects on extreme flows of water supply area in Istanbul: utility of regional climate models and downscaling method
Kara, Fatih; Yücel, İsmail (2015-09-01)
This study investigates the climate change impact on the changes of mean and extreme flows under current and future climate conditions in the Omerli Basin of Istanbul, Turkey. The 15 regional climate model output from the EU-ENSEMBLES project and a downscaling method based on local implications from geophysical variables were used for the comparative analyses. Automated calibration algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenbalansavdel-ning (HBV) model for the study catchment ...
Citation Formats
A. O. Torun, “Animal Exploitation at The Late Pleistocene- Holocene Transition in Upper Mesopotamia (10.900 – 7.700 CAL. BC) With A Focus on A Proposed Hunter-Gatherer Crisis,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2021.