The Moderating Role of Feedback on Forgetting in Item Recognition

Kılıç Özhan, Aslı
Malmberg, Kenneth J.
Criss, Amy H.
We conducted three experiments specifically designed to simultaneously evaluate the effects on recognition accuracy of adding items during study and adding items during test. The recognition memory list-length effect (LLE) is small and unreliable (Annis et al. 2015; Dennis et al. 2008), but additional test trials produce a robust decrease in accuracy, termed output interference (OI; Criss et al. 2011; Kılıç et al. 2017). This is puzzling; why should the size of the effect of additional stimulus exposures depend on whether the item was studied or tested (Malmberg et al. 2012)? We found a decrease in accuracy when stimulus exposures were added at any stage. However, the harm of adding items during study was less than the output interference that resulted from testing. In addition, feedback presented during test served as a moderator. When feedback was given, OI was diminished, and the LLE increased. Within the framework of our model, this suggests that testing with no feedback often results in the encoding of additional information in a trace originally encoded during study, and testing with feedback decreases the tendency to update traces during test. Several possible accounts of feedback reducing trace updating are discussed.
Computational Brain and Behavior


The Effects of Test Length and Sample Size on Item Parameters in Item Response Theory
Sahin, Alper; ANIL, DUYGU (2017-02-01)
This study investigates the effects of sample size and test length on item-parameter estimation in test development utilizing three unidimensional dichotomous models of item response theory (IRT). For this purpose, a real language test comprised of 50 items was administered to 6,288 students. Data from this test was used to obtain data sets of three test lengths (10, 20, and 30 items) and nine different sample sizes (150, 250, 350, 500, 750, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000 examinees). These data sets were the...
Geban, Ömer; Özkan, İlker (1992-09-01)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the computer-simulated experiment (CSE) and the problem-solving approach on students' chemistry achievement, science process skills, and attitudes toward chemistry at the high school level. For this purpose, two experimental groups were compared, with the control group using the conventional approach. The sample consisted of 200 ninth-grade students. The treatment for all groups was carried out over 9 weeks. Four instruments were used in the study:...
The Effect of metacognitive instructional method on eleventh grade students’ metacognitive skill and mathematical procedural and conceptual knowledge
Abdul Aziz, Tian; Bulut, Safure; Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education (2016)
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of metacognitive instructional method, compared to traditional instruction on eleventh grade science student’s mathematical procedural and conceptual knowledge, and metacognitive skills. Sixty-six eleventh-grade students in a school in Bandung City, Indonesia took part in this study. Matching-only pre-test-post-test control group design was conducted. The classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control group. In the experimental group metacog...
The effect of problem-based learning on the elementary students' achievement in genetics
Araz, Gülsüm; Sungur, Semra; Department of Elementary Science and Mathematics Education (2007)
The purpose of the study is to investigate the relative effect of problem-based learning (PBL) and traditionally designed science instruction (TDSI) on students’ academic achievement and performance skills in the unit of genetics after controlling for students’ prior knowledge, prior performance skills, reasoning ability, and learning approach. The sample consisted of 192 eight grade students from a public elementary school in Ankara. Four classes instructed by two science teachers were randomly assigned as...
The effect of computer-based interactive conceptual change texts on 11th grade students’ understanding of electrochemistry concepts and attitude toward chemistry
Taşdelen, Uğur; Geban, Ömer; Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education (2011)
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of conceptual change oriented instruction accompanied by computer-based interactive conceptual change text (CBICCT) on 11th grade students understanding of electrochemistry and attitude toward chemistry. The study was conducted in an anatolian high school in Ankara with two science classes with 66 students in May 2009. A quasi experimental design was used. The classes was assigned to groups; one as control group and the other as experimental group. Whil...
Citation Formats
A. Kılıç Özhan, K. J. Malmberg, and A. H. Criss, “The Moderating Role of Feedback on Forgetting in Item Recognition,” Computational Brain and Behavior, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 178–190, 2021, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: