Variation in Genetic Relatedness Patterns among Co-burials in Anatolian Neolithic Societies

Yaka, Reyhan
Mapelli, Igor
Kaptan, Damla
Doğu, Ayça
Chyleński, Maciej
Erdal, Ömür Dilek
Vural, Kıvılcım Başak
Bayliss, Alex
Koptekin, Dilek
Mazzucato, Camilla
Fer, Evrim
Lagerholm, Vendela Kempe
Krzewińska, Maja
Yurtman, Erinç
Çokoğlu, Sevim Seda
Gemici, Hasan Can
Kılınç, Gülşah Merve
Adams, Donovan
Munters, Arielle R.
Sağlıcan, Ekin
Milella, Marco
Schotsmans, Eline M.J.
Yorulmaz, Sevgi
Sevkar, Arda
Karamurat, Cansu
Altınışık, Nefize Ezgi
Juras, Anna
Bilgin, Cemal Can
Günther, Torsten
Storå, Jan
Jakobsson, Mattias
Kleijn, Maurice De
Mustafaoğlu, Gökhan
Fairbairn, Andrew
Pearson, Jessica
Togan, İnci
Kayacan, Nurcan
Marciniak, Arkadiusz
Larsen, Clark Spencer
Hodder, Ian
Atakuman, Çiğdem
Pilloud, Marin
Sürer, Elif
Gerritsen, Fokke
Özbal Gerrıtsen, Rana Deniz
Baird, Douglas
Erdal, Yılmaz Selim
Duru, Güneş
Özbaşaran, Mihriban
Haddow, Scott D.
Knüsel, Christopher J.
Götherström, Anders
Özer, Füsun
Somel, Mehmet
The Neolithic Transition to village life and food production first emerged in the Fertile Crescent (c.10th and early 9th millennium BCE) and fundamentally reshaped human history. Although this transition involved major changes in human lifestyle, the social organization and traditions of the earliest sedentary communities is poorly understood. Here, we investigate genetic relatedness patterns among co-buried individuals within domestic structures in Neolithic Anatolia by studying 22 newly generated ancient genomes from Aşıklı Höyük and Çatalhöyük and combining these with published genomes from other Anatolian Neolithic sites. We focus on the sites that span the early (Aşıklı Höyük and Boncuklu) and late Neolithic (Çatalhöyük and Barcın) to understand temporal variation in genetic relatedness patterns in association with burial location. During the early Neolithic period (late 9th and early 8th millennium BCE), represented by Aşıklı Höyük and Boncuklu, siblings and parent-offspring pairs are at relatively high frequency among co-burials. This suggests the existence of close genetic kinship components within the social organization of these settlements. In other settlements, such as the late Neolithic period (7th millennium BCE) Çatalhöyük and Barcın, the frequency of genetically close relatives among coburials is much lower. Despite the shortcomings of the small sample size, our results provide the first insights into the genetic kinship patterns between co-buried individuals, and how burial traditions of Neolithic societies in Anatolia varied among settlements, and may possibly have changed over time in conjunction with changing architecture, growing settlement size and cultural traditions.
9th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology (ISBA9)


Ancient genomics in Neolithic Central Anatolia and Çatalhöyük
Yaka, Reyhan; Doğu, Ayça; Kaptan, Damla; Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad; Chyleński, Maciej; Vural, Kıvılcım Başak; Altınışık, Nefize Ezgi; Mapelli, Igor; Koptekin, Dilek; Karamurat, Cansu; Gemici, Hasan Can; Yorulmaz, Sevgi; Lagerholm, Vendela Kempe; Fer, Evrim; Işıldak, Ulaş; Ghalichi, Ayshin; Kılınç, Gülşah Merve; Mazzucato, Camilla; Juras, Anna; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Clark S.; Pilloud, Marin; Haddow, Scott D.; Knüsel, Christopher J.; Togan, İnci; Götherström, Anders; Erdal, Yılmaz Selim; Sürer, Elif; Özer, Füsun; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Somel, Mehmet (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 2021-01-01)
Over multiple millennia, from the earliest traces of long-term occupation of camp sites (ca 20,000 BC) to the development of full-scale farming (ca 8000–6000 BC), the Neolithic transition in southwest Asia gradually shaped human societies in dramatic ways (Nadel 2002; Maher et al. 2012; Asouti, Fuller 2013). Here we present recent insights from ancient genomics studies into these societies while focusing on two questions: the population processes driving cultural change in Neolithic central Anatolia and gen...
Variation and Functional Impact of Neanderthal Ancestry in Western Asia
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Neanderthals contributed genetic material to modern humans via multiple admixture events. Initial admixture events presumably occurred in Western Asia shortly after humans migrated out of Africa. Despite being a focal point of admixture, earlier studies indicate lower Neanderthal introgression rates in some Western Asian populations as compared with other Eurasian populations. To better understand the genome-wide and phenotypic impact of Neanderthal introgression in the region, we sequenced whole genomes of...
Variable kinship patterns in Neolithic Anatolia revealed by ancient genomes
Yaka, Reyhan; et. al. (2021-06-01)
The social organization of the first fully sedentary societies that emerged during the Neolithic period in Southwest Asia remains enigmatic,1 mainly because material culture studies provide limited insight into this issue. However, because Neolithic Anatolian communities often buried their dead beneath domestic buildings,2 household composition and social structure can be studied through these human remains. Here, we describe genetic relatedness among co-burials associated with domestic buildings in Neolith...
Archaeogenomic analysis of population genetic relationships and kinship patterns in the sedentary societies from neolithic anatolia
Yaka, Reyhan; Somel, Mehmet; Özer, Füsun; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (2020-1-12)
The Neolithic way of life first emerged in the Fertile Crescent (c.10thand early 9thmillennium cal BCE) and quickly spread to neighbouring regionssuch as Central Anatoliaand Cyprus,and eventually further westwards. This transition involved to fundamental changes in human lifestyle,with the first emergence of villages during the early Neolithicandthe later the growing reliance on farming and herdingduring the late Neolithic periods. Changes in the social organization of sedentary communi...
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Around 10,000 y ago in southwest Asia, the cessation of a mobile lifestyle and the emergence of the first village communities during the Neolithic marked a fundamental change in human history. The first communities were small (tens to hundreds of individuals) but remained semisedentary. So-called megasites appeared soon after, occupied by thousands of more sedentary inhabitants. Accompanying this shift, the material culture and ancient ecological data indicate profound changes in economic and social behavio...
Citation Formats
R. Yaka et al., “Variation in Genetic Relatedness Patterns among Co-burials in Anatolian Neolithic Societies,” presented at the 9th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology (ISBA9), 2021, Accessed: 00, 2021. [Online]. Available: