Isoquinolinedione-urea hybrids: Synthesis, antibacterial evaluation, drug-likeness, molecular docking and DFT studies

Dengiz, Çağatay
Dogan, Sengul Diem
In the present study, we applied the molecular hybridization approach to combine isoquinolinedione and urea pharmacophores in the same molecules. The hybrid compounds (IU1-IU14) were obtained by the reaction of 2-aminohomophthalimide and an equivalent amount of various isocyanate derivatives. After confirming the chemical structures and evaluating drug-likeness properties, the synthesized compounds were examined for their antibacterial activities against a wide range of bacteria. The compounds possessing lipophilic halogen substituents showed better activities against Gram-positive bacteria, particularly on Staphylococcus aureus strains. This activity trend was further supported by molecular docking studies in the ATP pocket of S. aureus DNA gyrase. Several important parameters such as, ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), global chemical hardness (eta), global softness (sigma), and electronegativity (chi) were carried out to gain insights into the structural properties and stabilities of selected active compounds by means of density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP functional using basis set B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). Electrostatic potential maps (ESPs) and frontier orbital visualizations were further used to comment on molecular polarity and stability. (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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Halogenated L- or D-tryptophan obtained by biocatalytic halogenation was incorporated into RGD peptides together with a variety of alkyl or aryl boronic acids. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling either in solution or on-resin results in side chain-to-tail-cyclized RGD peptides, for example, with biaryl moieties, providing a new dimension of structure-activity relationships. An array of RGD peptides differing in macrocycle size, the presence of D-amino acid, N-methylation, or connectivity between the indole moiet...
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Citation Formats
M. İ. HAN, Ç. Dengiz, S. D. Dogan, M. G. GÜNDÜZ, S. KÖPRÜ, and C. ÖZKUL KOÇAK, “Isoquinolinedione-urea hybrids: Synthesis, antibacterial evaluation, drug-likeness, molecular docking and DFT studies,” JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, vol. 1252, pp. 0–0, 2022, Accessed: 00, 2022. [Online]. Available: