Kabakcı, Cansu
Magnesium is a trace element that plays an important role in contraction and relaxation of muscles, enzymatic cellular reactions, production and transport of energy and protein synthesis. Magnesium fortification of food is necessary to prevent magnesium deficiency. However, magnesium addition in foods can induce chemical degradations, protein aggregation and results in unacceptable taste. In order to overcome these drawbacks, in this thesis, it was aimed to encapsulate magnesium by using water-oil-water double emulsions and to analyze its baking stability in cake. Double emulsions were prepared by using different emulsifiers and by using high speed homogenization and ultrasonication. As a natural raw material, lentil and pea flours were used in the outer phase of double emulsions and obtained emulsions were characterized. Emulsions prepared by different legume flour concentrations (15%, 20%, 25%, 30%) and homogenization methods (high speed homogenization and ultrasonic homogenization) were analyzed in terms of particle size, rheology, stability, optic view, nucleic magnetic resonance and efficiency and optimum parameters were determined. Double emulsions with lower particle size, higher viscosity and higher stability were obtained at higher legume flour concentrations. Increasing legume flour concentration form 15% to 30%, resulted in the 15% increase in the stability of double emulsions. Ultrasonic homogenization also contributed to produce double emulsions with higher stability (> 99%). Optimum conditions for preparing double emulsion was at least with 20% legume flour concentration and with ultrasonic homogenization. Emulsions with high stability and efficiency were integrated into cakes and the heat stability of emulsions in the baked product were analyzed. The aim was to enrich foods with magnesium without taste and quality degradation. Therefore, cakes containing magnesium in the form of double emulsion, in the form of primary emulsion, and without any protection were compared by means of hardness, specific volume, weight loss and crust color and the similar quality parameters were obtained. Moreover, sensory results showed that, cakes containing magnesium encapsulated in double emulsion had similar taste with cakes containing no magnesium. Cakes with double emulsion had lower encapsulation efficiencies than heated double emulsions. However, double emulsions in cakes had about 80% and 89% higher baking stability than control and 13% and 24% higher baking stability than the primary emulsion, for lentil and pea flour, respectively. Digestion of the obtained emulsions and cakes containing emulsions were analyzed in gastric and intestinal juices and it was seen that magnesium can be released and digested in human body. Considering all these results, encapsulation of magnesium by double emulsion with legume flours and its integration into food was fulfilled successfully.


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Citation Formats
C. Kabakcı, “MAGNESIUM FORTIFICATION IN CAKES BY USING DOUBLE EMULSIONS WITH LEGUME FLOURS,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2022.