Phyto-mediated photocatalysis: a critical review of in-depth base to reactive radical generation for erythromycin degradation

Ashraf, Aniqa
Liu, Guijian
Yousaf, Balal
Arif, Muhammad
Ahmed, Rafay
Rashid, Audil
Riaz, Luqman
Rashid, Muhammad Saqib
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Erythromycin (ERY), designated as a risk-prioritized macrolide antibiotic on the 2015 European Union watch list, is the third most commonly used antibiotic, most likely due to its ability to inhibit the protein. ERY has revealed record-high aquatic concentrations threatening the entire ecosystem and hence demands priority remedial measures. The inefficiency of various conventional ERY degradation methodologies opened up a gateway to advanced technologies. The conventional approach comprising of a chemically formulated, single photocatalyst has a major drawback of creating multiple environmental stresses. In this context, photocatalysis is grabbing tremendous attention as an efficient and cost-effective antibiotic treatment approach. Several studies have ascertained that ZnO, TiO2, Fe3O4, and rGO nanoparticles possess remarkable pollution minimizing operational capabilities. Additionally, composites are found much more effective in antibiotic removal than single nanoparticles. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive baseline for efficient reactive radical production by a phyto-mediated composite kept under a certain source of irradiation. Considerable efforts have been directed towards the in-depth investigation of rGO-embedded, phyto-mediated ZnO/TiO2/Fe3O4 photocatalyst fabrication for efficient ERY degradation, undergoing green photocatalysis. This detailed review provides photocatalytic nanocomposite individualities along with a hypothetical ERY degradation mechanism. It is assumed that derived information presented here will provoke innovative ideas for water purification incorporating green photocatalysis, initiating the construction of high-performance biogenic hierarchical nanocatalysts.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research


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Citation Formats
A. Ashraf et al., “Phyto-mediated photocatalysis: a critical review of in-depth base to reactive radical generation for erythromycin degradation,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 29, no. 22, pp. 32513–32544, 2022, Accessed: 00, 2022. [Online]. Available: