The Changing world order and German foreign policy in the era of chancellor Angela Merkel (2005-2021)

Çilkoparan, Hidayet
Europe has left the Cold War period behind without a military clash with the Soviet Union and largely thanks to the policies of openness and re-structuring pursued by Michael Gorbachev, the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, witnessed a peaceful dissolution of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) seized the historic opportunity and moved to end the division of Germany, which has been a hard reality for Germans after World War II. An Agreement called the “4+2 Treaty”, signed on 12 September 1990 and entered into force on 15 March 1991, laid the foundations for the re-unified Germany’s foreign policy. On the other hand, successive enlargement cycles of NATO and the European Union (EU) have created buffer zones between Germany and its arch-rival Russia. Thanks to these geopolitical changes, Germany has had the luxury of focusing its efforts and resources on its development and reunification with East Germany and advancing and deepening European integration. Over the past decades, the country has become the most robust economy in Europe and one of the largest in the world. However, many argue that its role and weight in international affairs do not correspond to its economic power. As global political realities have been evolving since the end of the Cold War, Chancellor Angela Merkel, at the helm of Germany for 16 years (2005-2021), has faced and navigated through several crises and challenges by adapting her country’s foreign policy to the changing international order.


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Citation Formats
H. Çilkoparan, “The Changing world order and German foreign policy in the era of chancellor Angela Merkel (2005-2021),” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2022.