Urbanity in the Open Spaces in Developing Nodes along Main Arteries: Söğütözü Node on Dumlupınar Road in Ankara

Aral, Hacer Ela
Uysal Bilge, Fulay
Doğu Demirbaş, Güler Ufuk
The effects of the main transportation arteries on the urban sprawl and the formation of new public spaces is an important topic of discussion today. Considering the urban roads, major arteries trigger fast development and the formation of a significant amount of urban open space together with buildings. Vehicular roads are the main elements that bring out urbanity and centrality by providing a combination of circulation at different speeds and making possible the interaction of users from local and remote areas (Jacobs, 1969; Nijenhuis, 1994 and Read, 2006). In this context, sub-spaces were defined as public spaces that are beside / under / above / between / within vehicular roads and the sub-space perceptions of pedestrians in the case of the closest part of Ankara Eskişehir Road to the city center, were investigated in an earlier study (Alanyalı Aral and Demirbaş, 2015). In the current study, Söğütözü is defined as a developing node with its rapidly increasing built stock and function density on one of the most important transportation arteries of the city, and its urban features are discussed within the scope of the emerging open spaces. Despite the unsuitable conditions, Söğütözü node displays a constant pedestrian density, and with this feature, it exemplifies ‘activity’ as an important indicator, which Montgomery (1998) defines as one of the three components of the concept of ‘urbanity’. Accordingly, a conceptual framework is developed on the characteristics of urbanity, activity and public space, and then the components of the open space stock are discussed within the scope of spaces of ‘places’ and ‘flows’ (Nijhuis and Jauslin, 2015) specific to developing nodes. Spaces of ‘places’ in developing nodes include privately owned public use spaces, in-between spaces and informal public spaces -’fourth place’s (Aelbrecht, 2016). The spaces of the ‘flows’, on the other hand, are discussed as pedestrian spaces that enhance urbanity. In the case study, firstly the historical and current development of Söğütözü node is examined, and then a comprehensive model based on the relevant pedestrian needs is suggested to evaluate the activitybased urbanity in the node. The defining elements of the activity-based urbanity are explored via map analysis and on-site observations, whereas the pedestrian perceptions in the node are investigated with the applied questionnaires. The results show that the pedestrian experience is negatively affected due to the conditional and intermittent pedestrian access, as well as the inability to provide physical, psychological and physiological comfort; nevertheless, many and various activities add vitality to the area which result in many informal public spaces (fourth places) formed at the entrances and transitions to the public and semi-public spaces. The questionnaire survey, which was conducted with fewer but still comparable numbers of users due to the pandemic conditions, included the pedestrian perception questions in the survey conducted in 2005-2007. It is seen that although today the perception of traffic such as noise increased slightly, the perception of air pollution and traffic safety problems decreased. Additionally, the perception of public space qualities like well-known and dynamic / lively spaces increased significantly and constituted the most common perception after the perception of noisy / tiresome space. The results reveal that open spaces in the node of Söğütözü, where mixed use, large-scale and fragmented complexes are dominant, cannot provide environmental and internal continuity as well as appropriate walking environment within the framework of activity-based urbanization, and thus necessitate a holistic urban design approach. The urbanism formed in this rapidly developing node can be enhanced by temporal and spatial continuities; in addition to provision of pedestrian comfort with the arrangements to reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle dominance. The overall evaluation validates that the open spaces in the node should be enriched with accessible spaces for all users, carefully designed indooroutdoor relations, cultural uses, small-scale businesses and activities spanning time.


Pedestrians’ Perception Of Sub-Spaces Along Urban Roads As Public Spaces –Case Of Eskişehir Road In Ankara
DEMİRBAŞ, ÖZGEN OSMAN; Aral, Hacer Ela (2015-04-01)
Yol boyu yan-mekânlar, kent içinde sundukları yüksek erişilebilirliğebağlı olarak yoğun yaya kullanımı barındırdıklarında kamusal mekânözellikleri gösterirler. Yollar, çeşitli ve çok sayıda kullanıcıyı bir arayagetirerek karşılaşma olasılığı yaratmak yanında ortaya koyduklarıetkinlikler ve canlılıkla da kentselliğin oluşmasında temel oluştururlar.Günümüzde artan araç hızı nedeniyle araç sürücülerinin görsel algısı vekarşılaşma deneyimi indirgenmiştir. Bunun yanında, yan-mekânlardakiyayalar yüksek hız ve yoğ...
Urban form and walkability: the assessment of walkability capacity of Ankara
Ak, Aslı; Akkar Ercan, Zübeyde Müge; Department of City and Regional Planning (2018)
Walkable cities are one of the major requirements of sustainable and livable cities. From the 1960s to nowadays, contemporary cities have been shaped and developed through an automobile-oriented planning which neglects of public transport users, pedestrians and cyclists, promotes urban sprawl leading to a high-costly infrastructural investments. Based on privately owned car-oriented transportation policies and rapid urbanization dynamics, cities grow fast by sprawling with uncontrolled building densities, w...
Urban form, public life and urbanity: A study on Sakarya Pedestrian Area in Ankara
Coşkuner, Utku; Bilsel, Fatma Cânâ; Department of Architecture (2021-9)
Decision-making processes related with the physical arrangements and the urban form affect the city's social structure at a certain extent. In return, social transformations most obviously take the stage on the public spaces of cities that are open-to-all spaces of urban culture and are the main reason why cities define spaces of freedom. Besides the direct relationship it establishes with the public spaces of the city, the public realm is an intangible concept shaped by how the urbanites develop their comm...
Transformative Urban Railway: Ankara Commuter Line and Lost Landscape
Baş Bütüner, Funda; Aral, Hacer Ela (2017-09-27)
Being major transportation infrastructure of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the impacts of railways on cities have highly directed urban studies,. deforming material edge of cities, encouraging urban extension, forming new territories, and speeding up urban development. However, in recent decades, with newly emerging landscape infrastructure practice, a new idea for a more integrated infrastructure and landscape system has started to be formulated. Railway strips, occurring as territories where solid-vo...
Public art in public space: tracking graffiti and mural art practices in contemporary Tehran
Zare Gharehgheshlaghi, Solmaz; Akkar Ercan, Zübeyde Müge; Urban Design in City and Regional Planning Department (2019)
Public spaces, inevitable components of urban space, play a very important role in creating livable places by meeting different needs of citizens. Urban public spaces allow for social, cultural and economic interaction and intellectual freedom in urban outdoor spaces. Public art is an effective means of communication in the public sphere. As an indispensable element of space design, public art creates a 'sense of place' and 'place identity'. Public art serves many purposes such as attracting people's attent...
Citation Formats
H. E. Aral, F. Uysal Bilge, and G. U. Doğu Demirbaş, “Urbanity in the Open Spaces in Developing Nodes along Main Arteries: Söğütözü Node on Dumlupınar Road in Ankara,” ODTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. Volume 39, no. Issue 1, pp. 165–192, 2022, Accessed: 00, 2022. [Online]. Available: http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/archive/0258-5316/articles/metujfa2022108.pdf.