Numerical analysis of deep twin excavations and boreholes for heavy oil production

Emci, M.E.
Öztürk, Hasan
© Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.One of the plans for the production of Turkey's largest oil reserve, Bati Raman (1.85 billion barrels), is to use Mining-Assisted Heavy Oil Production (MAHOP). In this method, twin declines are excavated from the surface to the reservoir and a series of excavations (galleries) continue along the bottom of the reservoir. Fan-shaped steam injection and production holes are drilled in the reservoir from the crown of the galleries to use conventional Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD). The Bati Raman reservoir is situated at an average depth of 1450 m, producing 12° API heavy oil from a 60m thick calcareous reservoir rock. This research aims to numerically investigate the stability of excavations together with the initiation, formation and propagation of fracture networks between the fan-shaped boreholes and around typical twin excavations using FLAC3D. It is shown that the stability of twin excavations and pillars between them can be guaranteed with suitable support types. In addition, this innovative approach in heavy oil production in hard rock media successfully showed that the fracture networks created by MAHOP could be used effectively for oil recovery of reservoir rocks using SAGD.
EUROCK 2021 Conference on Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering from Theory to Practice


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Batı Raman holds the Turkey's proven largest oil reserve (1.85 billion barrels). The reserve is located at an average depth of 1450 m within a fractured limestone. This heavy oil has a 12° API gravity and a viscosity of 200-2000 cp. A future plan for this reserve is to use a "mining assisted heavy oil production" method. The idea behind this method is to reach the reserve by a decline from the surface and continue opening up galleries beneath the reserve from which fan shape up holes will be drilled in the ...
Citation Formats
M. E. Emci and H. Öztürk, “Numerical analysis of deep twin excavations and boreholes for heavy oil production,” Turin, Virtual, İtalya, 2021, vol. 833, Accessed: 00, 2022. [Online]. Available: