Kutlu, Burak Temel
Kaolin is a mineral with industrial value and can be used as a raw material in different areas. In most uses, pure quality kaolin is required. However, not all the kaolin occurrences are pure as much as needed and additional processes are applied before use. Nevertheless, some occurrences are accepted as gangue material due to their poor quality and low reserve. Kaolin-rich layers are widespread in coal deposits, but their quality is low. The presence of clay-rich layers with kaolin content in coal deposits is accepted as a problem in coal mines worldwide. In Turkey, it is also a common problem. Zeolite is another widely used and commercially valuable industrial raw material, with applications in desiccants, molecular sieves, catalysts, water softeners, and warm mix asphalt additives. However, natural zeolites are limited in purity, color, quality of the zeolite crystals, and reserve, and synthetic ones are produced to use in end products. In the production of synthetic zeolite like zeolite 4A, kaolin is a unique source due to its similar silicon and aluminum contents, and structures. Even the economically valuable kaolin used for zeolite production is generally pre-treated to have unique high quality. This brings an additional expense in production. In this study, samples from kaolin-rich clay layers that are in assemblage with coal layers within the Thrace basin of Turkey and accepted as gangue material in coal mines were tested to synthesize zeolite 4A. The samples are composed of montmorillonite and illite as well. Three different activation methods were applied to the samples for the first time, and the synthesis of zeolites was successfully fulfilled. The study showed that commercially invaluable, clay and kaolin-rich gangue from coal deposits within the Thrace region of Turkey can be converted into zeolites, as a value-added product for the market which can be used in various applications in industry. In that way, the wastes that are considered gangue minerals from coal mines could be aimed to be brought back into the economy.


Use of waste pyrite from mineral processing plants in soil remediation
Aydın, Gülşen; Arol, Ali İhsan; Department of Mining Engineering (2011)
Pyrite (FeS2) is commonly present in complex sulphide ores in significant amounts. After the enrichment of such ores by flotation, pyrite is either produced as a separate concentrate and sold to acid manufactures or removed and disposed off as tailing. Due to lack of demand from manufacturers, most of pyrites is usually disposed off as tailing. Therefore, pyrite is usually a waste from complex sulphide ores. Yet, it may be a remediation additive for calcareous soils and calcareous- alkali soils deficient in...
Development of antibacterial powder coatings using single and binary ion-exchanged zeolite A prepared from local kaolin
İşler Binay, Melda; KİRDECİLER, SALİH KAAN; Akata Kurç, Burcu (2019-12-01)
Antibacterial electrostatic powder paint coating with intended esthetic criteria was specially formulated for industrial applications using single (Ag+) and binary exchanged (Ag+ and Zn2+) zeolite A, which was prepared from local kaolin resources. Optimization studies on reaction parameters were conducted to obtain the most crystalline zeolite A from kaolin. The Ag+ and Zn2+ exchanged zeolite A samples prepared from kaolin were introduced as filler into the paint matrix during the electrostatic powder coati...
Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite from calcium sulfate hemihydrate
Bıngol, Onur Rauf; Durucan, Caner (2012-08-01)
Commercial grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO4·0.5H2O, or plaster of paris, PoP) an economically feasible and abundant precursor has been used in (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) synthesis. The synthesis was realized by reacting solid PoP precursor with 1M of (NH4)2HPO4 aqueous solution, at ambient and mild hydrothermal conditions (2 ± 0.2 atm and 120 °C). The effect of reaction temperature and pressure on PoP to HAp conversion efficiencies and reaction kinetics has been reported. The formation of HAp at a react...
Use of boron compounds as binders in iron ore pelletization
Sivrikaya, Osman; Arol, Ali İhsan (2010-05-01)
Low grade iron ores with impurity gangue minerals containing silica and alumina must be upgraded to an acceptable level of iron content. Concentrates, due to their fine sizes, are not suitable to be directly charged to the iron-making processes such as the blast furnace or the DR-plant. Hence, an agglomeration technique should be applied to fine concentrate. The most commonly employed one is pelletizing in iron ore industry. In pelletizing, iron ore, water and a binder are balled in a mechanical disc or dru...
Mechanism of Photolytic Decomposition of N-Halamine Antimicrobial Siloxane Coatings
Kocer, Hasan B.; Akdağ, Akın; Worley, S. D.; Acevedo, Orlando; Broughton, R. M.; Wu, Yonnie (2010-08-01)
Generally, antimicrobial N halamine siloxane coatings can be rehalogenated repetitively upon loss of their biocidal efficacies, a marked advantage over coatings containing other antimicrobial materials. However, the N halamine materials tend to slowly decompose upon exposure to ultraviolet irradiation as in direct sunlight. In this work the mechanism of photolytic decomposition for the N halamine siloxanes has been studied using spectroscopic and theoretical methods. It was found that the N chlorinated coat...
Citation Formats
B. T. Kutlu, “USE OF GANGUE KAOLINS FROM COAL DEPOSITS IN SYNTHETIC ZEOLITE PRODUCTION,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2022.