Ancient Upper Mesopotamia, 10,000 years ago: first genomic impressions

Altınışık, N. Ezgi
Kazancı, Duygu Deniz
Aydoğan, Ayça
Gemici, Hasan Can
Erdal, Ömür Dilek
Sarıaltun, Savaş
Vural, Kıvılcım Başak
Koptekin, Dilek
Gürün, Kanat
Sağlıcan, Ekin
Koruyucu, Meliha Melis
Karamurat, Cansu
Özkan, Mustafa
Kılınç, Gülşah Merve
Götherström, Anders
Atakuman, Çiğdem
Erdal, Yılmaz Selim
Özer, Füsun
Özdoğan, Aslı Erim
Somel, Mehmet
We present partial ancient genomes from 13 individuals from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period of Çayönü Tepesi in present-day Diyarbakır, Turkey. The sample coversa 1,000 year range, between approximately 10,500-9,500 years ago, and represents the first ancient genome set yet published from Upper Mesopotamia. Pre-Pottery Neolithic Çayönü was a sedentary community, with largely hunter-gatherersubsistence,but at the same time heavily experimenting with crop cultivation and animal management. Neolithic Çayönü is also known for its remarkable cultural dynamism reflected in diverse architectural styles and changing mortuary practices. Our genome data suggest that the Çayönü population, most likely representing that of Upper Mesopotamia, emerged through admixture between groups from eastern and western Fertile Crescent, namely the Central Zagros and Central Anatolia/Levant, respectively. We find that the Çayönü genetic profile is the best candidate for "eastern" gene flow into Central Anatolia by the 7th millennium BCE, marking Upper Mesopotamia as a potentialcontributing ancestry source to sites such as Çatalhöyük. We further determineclose genetic kinship among individuals co-buried underneath floors of domestic buildings, in support of the notion that household membership was related to biological family ties in thePre-Pottery Neolithic, a pattern that appears to have changed in later sites such as Çatalhöyük and Barcın. Finally, using the genomic data and pedigree simulations we identifya possible third-generation migrant infant of likely Central Zagros descent in our sample, implying that the Çayönü communitywas open to immigration.


Altıner, Sevinç (Wiley, 1993-12-01)
Within the framework of an integrated stratigraphy, a detailed biostratigraphic study of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (Tithonian-Valanginian) calcareous nannofossils was carried out in north-west Anatolia, Turkey.
Archaeogenomic analysis of the first steps of Neolithization in Anatolia and the Aegean
Kilinc, Gulsah Merve; KOPTEKIN, Dilek; Atakuman, Çiğdem; SUMER, Arev Pelin; DONERTAS, Handan Melike; YAKA, Reyhan; Bilgin, Cemal Can; BÜYÜKKARAKAYA, ALİ METİN; Baird, Douglas; ALTINISIK, Ezgi; FLEGONTOV, Pavel; Gotherstrom, Anders; TOGAN, Inci; Somel, Mehmet (2017-11-29)
The Neolithic transition in west Eurasia occurred in two main steps: the gradual development of sedentism and plant cultivation in the Near East and the subsequent spread of Neolithic cultures into the Aegean and across Europe after 7000 cal BCE. Here, we use published ancient genomes to investigate gene flow events in west Eurasia during the Neolithic transition. We confirm that the Early Neolithic central Anatolians in the ninth millennium BCE were probably descendants of local hunter-gatherers, rather th...
Archaeogenomic analysis of population genetic relationships and kinship patterns in the sedentary societies from neolithic anatolia
Yaka, Reyhan; Somel, Mehmet; Özer, Füsun; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (2020-1-12)
The Neolithic way of life first emerged in the Fertile Crescent (c.10thand early 9thmillennium cal BCE) and quickly spread to neighbouring regionssuch as Central Anatoliaand Cyprus,and eventually further westwards. This transition involved to fundamental changes in human lifestyle,with the first emergence of villages during the early Neolithicandthe later the growing reliance on farming and herdingduring the late Neolithic periods. Changes in the social organization of sedentary communi...
Ancient genomics in Neolithic Central Anatolia and Çatalhöyük
Yaka, Reyhan; Doğu, Ayça; Kaptan, Damla; Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad; Chyleński, Maciej; Vural, Kıvılcım Başak; Altınışık, Nefize Ezgi; Mapelli, Igor; Koptekin, Dilek; Karamurat, Cansu; Gemici, Hasan Can; Yorulmaz, Sevgi; Lagerholm, Vendela Kempe; Fer, Evrim; Işıldak, Ulaş; Ghalichi, Ayshin; Kılınç, Gülşah Merve; Mazzucato, Camilla; Juras, Anna; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Clark S.; Pilloud, Marin; Haddow, Scott D.; Knüsel, Christopher J.; Togan, İnci; Götherström, Anders; Erdal, Yılmaz Selim; Sürer, Elif; Özer, Füsun; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Somel, Mehmet (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 2021-01-01)
Over multiple millennia, from the earliest traces of long-term occupation of camp sites (ca 20,000 BC) to the development of full-scale farming (ca 8000–6000 BC), the Neolithic transition in southwest Asia gradually shaped human societies in dramatic ways (Nadel 2002; Maher et al. 2012; Asouti, Fuller 2013). Here we present recent insights from ancient genomics studies into these societies while focusing on two questions: the population processes driving cultural change in Neolithic central Anatolia and gen...
Ancient DNA isolation and mitochondrial DNA analysis of human samples from Çemialo Sırtı, Batman in Southeast Anatolia
Yaka, Reyhan; Togan, İnci Zehra; Department of Biology (2015)
The main purpose of the study was to obtain aDNA sequences of ancient human remains in the dedicated ancient DNA (aDNA) laboratory which was established at Middle East Technical University, in 2012. For this purpose, human samples approximately dating between 600-500 BC from Çemialo Sırtı excavation site in Batman in southeast Anatolia, were employed. aDNA extraction was performed using bone and teeth samples from 9 human skeletal remains. Then the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Hypervariable region I and Hyperv...
Citation Formats
N. E. Altınışık et al., “Ancient Upper Mesopotamia, 10,000 years ago: first genomic impressions,” Erdemli, Mersin, TÜRKİYE, 2022, p. 2101, Accessed: 00, 2023. [Online]. Available: