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Ancient DNA isolation and mitochondrial DNA analysis of human samples from Çemialo Sırtı, Batman in Southeast Anatolia

Yaka, Reyhan
The main purpose of the study was to obtain aDNA sequences of ancient human remains in the dedicated ancient DNA (aDNA) laboratory which was established at Middle East Technical University, in 2012. For this purpose, human samples approximately dating between 600-500 BC from Çemialo Sırtı excavation site in Batman in southeast Anatolia, were employed. aDNA extraction was performed using bone and teeth samples from 9 human skeletal remains. Then the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Hypervariable region I and Hypervariable region II (HVRI-HVRII) of 7 samples could be successfully amplified and their sequences were obtained. Success rates in extractions (9/9) and amplifications (7/9) were 100% and 77.8%, respectively. Postmortem nucleotide changes (misincorporations) were also detected supporting the authenticity of the sequences. aDNA sequences were used to determine mtDNA haplogroups (HPGs) of the samples. The observed percentage of each haplogroup was: HPG H=28.57%, HPG HV=14.29%, HPG M=14.29%, HPG R=28.57%, HPG U2=14.29% for the 7 Çemialo Sırtı individuals. vi When the mtDNA based haplogroup and sequence data of the present study were evaluated together with the results of some other ancient and modern populations by means of Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was observed that Çemialo Sırtı population is relatively similar to the neareastern Neolithic population (7300 BC) from northern Syria. Continuity between the Çemialo Sırtı population (n=7) and the same Neolithic population from northern Syria (n=10) was tested by calculating the FST value between these two populations, and comparing that with the FST values generated by coalescent simulations. During the simulations, random drift was assumed to be the force of genetic differentiation between the two populations. Under the exponential growth and no growth models, continuity from Neolithic population to Çemialo Sırtı population could not be rejected. Since the sample size was small in Çemialo Sırtı population, comparative results must be taken with caution.