Ancient Dna Analysis For Correct Identification Of Charred Crop Seeds From Archaeological Excavations At Bronze Age Kaymakçı

Luke, Christina
Roosevelt, Chris
Kaya, Zeki
Archaeobotanical materials subject to aDNA analysis were recovered from the site of Kaymakçı, one of several settlements in the middle Gediz Valley dating to the Middle and Late Bronze Age, c. 3500–4000 years ago. Excavations at Kaymakçı have yielded many charred ancient seeds representing various crop species, including Triticum aestivum/durum L., Hordeum vulgare L., Vicia ervillia (L) Willd., Cicer arietinum L., and Vitis vinifera L., demonstrating crop cultivation practices for both human and animal consumption in the second millennium BCE. This study aimed to provide genetic data to enable more precise identification of charred crop seeds using the ancient DNA (aDNA) approach. aDNA was successfully extracted from representative charred seeds using a modified CTAB method. In general, the low amounts of and degraded quality of DNA from charred plant seeds are the major constrains of aDNA amplifications with PCR. To overcome these problems and obtain high amounts and good quality genomic DNA, the whole genome amplification kit was used. As proof of endogenous DNA, PCR amplification of the 26SrDNA and ribulose-1,5 biphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene regions with aDNA was carried out and sequenced. High levels of similarity between the ancient seeds and their modern relatives were observed with the comparative sequence analysis of these gene regions. Paleogenetic analysis of amplifiable aDNA will provide multiple, well-characterized, and potentially highly polymorphic genetic loci to answer archaeobotanical and archaeological questions regarding crop domestication and transport across Anatolia.
2. Ahi Evran International Conference on Scientific Research, 21-23 Octover 2022


The ancient DNA and archaeobotanical analysis suggest cultivation of Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta at Yumuktepe and Yenikapi Pottery Neolithic sites in Turkey
Degirmenci, Funda O.; ULAŞ, BURHAN; Kansu, Cigdem; Ulug, Asiye; Caneva, Isabella; Asal, Rahmi; Kaya, Zeki (2022-08-01)
Archaeobotanical materials subject to aDNA analysis were recovered from Yumuktepe and Yenikapi, two important archaeological sites in Anatolia and date back to the Pottery Neolithic Period i.e., 7th millennium BC. Many charred ancient seeds representing various cereal species including a great number of wheat grains were documented in mentioned sites. Among the cereal seeds, charred wheat samples were tentatively identified as Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta L. or Triticum new glume wheat (NGW) or atypical ...
The Hittite Stone and Sculpture Quarry at Karakiz Kasabasi and Hapis Bokazi in the District of Sorgun, Yozgat, Central Anatolia
Summers, Geoffrey; Ozen, Erol (2012-07-01)
An extensive stone quarry dating to the Hittite Empire period in the Late Bronze Age is located at Karakiz Kasabasi in the province ofYozgat, north-central Anatolia. In addition to numerous traces of stone quarrying, several exceptional unfinished pieces were found at the site, including two bases each sculpted from a single block and comprising a pedestal supported by a pair of lions a large drum, and a large basin. These unique pieces are described and illustrated, followed by a discussion of their probab...
Ancient genomics in Neolithic Central Anatolia and Çatalhöyük
Yaka, Reyhan; Doğu, Ayça; Kaptan, Damla; Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad; Chyleński, Maciej; Vural, Kıvılcım Başak; Altınışık, Nefize Ezgi; Mapelli, Igor; Koptekin, Dilek; Karamurat, Cansu; Gemici, Hasan Can; Yorulmaz, Sevgi; Lagerholm, Vendela Kempe; Fer, Evrim; Işıldak, Ulaş; Ghalichi, Ayshin; Kılınç, Gülşah Merve; Mazzucato, Camilla; Juras, Anna; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Clark S.; Pilloud, Marin; Haddow, Scott D.; Knüsel, Christopher J.; Togan, İnci; Götherström, Anders; Erdal, Yılmaz Selim; Sürer, Elif; Özer, Füsun; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Somel, Mehmet (British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 2021-01-01)
Over multiple millennia, from the earliest traces of long-term occupation of camp sites (ca 20,000 BC) to the development of full-scale farming (ca 8000–6000 BC), the Neolithic transition in southwest Asia gradually shaped human societies in dramatic ways (Nadel 2002; Maher et al. 2012; Asouti, Fuller 2013). Here we present recent insights from ancient genomics studies into these societies while focusing on two questions: the population processes driving cultural change in Neolithic central Anatolia and gen...
Analysis of ancient DNA from in vitro grown tissues of 1600-year-old seeds revealed the species as Anagyris foetida
Ozgen, Murat; Ozdilek, Asli; BİRSİN, MELEHAT AVCI; Önde, Sertaç; ŞAHİN, DERYA; AÇIKGÖZ, Esvet; Kaya, Zeki (2012-12-01)
Seven ancient seeds, about 1600 years old, were found during an archaeological excavation in Asar Island which is located in south-western Turkey. These seeds were subjected to germination, in vitro callus induction and molecular characterization experiments to test the viability and plant origin of the seeds. Six of the seven seeds had viable seed components (such as cotyledons) and produced callus tissue in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2mgl(-1) 6-benzylamino purine (BAP), 0.2 mgl(-1) 1-nap...
The genesis and characterisation of 'Marmor Misium' from Kozak (Turkey), a granite used in antiquity
De Vecchi, Giampaolo; Lazzarini, Lorenzo; Lunel, Taylan; Mignucci, Anna; Visona, Dario (2000-06-01)
'Marmor Misium' was one of the most used granites of antiquity, especially for the manufacture of columns and slabs. It was quarried in the area of Kozak (Turkey) and used locally from the Late Hellenistic period and later, probably at the end of the 1st century AD, exported to Rome and other important Roman towns of the Mediterranean sea. It seems that 'Marmor Misium' continued to be quarried until the Early Byzantine time; it is now still quarried for local use (road paving, etc.). In spite of its histori...
Citation Formats
F. ÖZDEMİR DEĞİRMENCİ, A. ULUĞ, Ç. KANSU, C. Luke, C. Roosevelt, and Z. Kaya, “Ancient Dna Analysis For Correct Identification Of Charred Crop Seeds From Archaeological Excavations At Bronze Age Kaymakçı,” presented at the 2. Ahi Evran International Conference on Scientific Research, 21-23 Octover 2022, Kırşehir, Türkiye, 2022, Accessed: 00, 2023. [Online]. Available: