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The effects of thidiazuron on callus development and organogenesis from mature embryos of selected Turkish bread and durum wheat varieties

Yaqubov, Nihad
The effects of cytokinin-like Thidiazuron growth regulator on the regeneration responses of callus cultures of Turkish bread Triticum aestivum L. cv. (Basak 95, Gerek 79, and Bezostaja 1) and durum Triticum durum Desf. cv. (Kunduru, Çakmak 79, and Kirmizi 5132) wheat varieties have been investigated in this study. High callus induction frequencies are found to be independent of bread and durum wheat varieties ( > 96%) whereas the callus weight is found to be variety-dependent. For bread wheat, Basak 95 and for the durum wheat Kunduru is found to be the best performers. TDZ treatments are found to be negatively affecting the regeneration capacity of all the tested bread wheat varieties whereas for the durum wheat variety of Kunduru positive effect is observed. Since the culture efficiency is a derivation from the regeneration capacity, this parameter yielded very similar results as in the case of regeneration capacity for both bread and durum wheat varieties. In bread wheat varieties, the TDZ treatments increased the number of regenerated plants more than 2-fold when compared with the control and likewise very similar results were obtained from durum wheat varieties. Unfortunately, following their transfer to soil, plants that were treated with various concentrations of TDZ displayed reduced vigor probably due to underdeveloped roots. In addition, majority of these plants did not sufficiently develop above the ground parts when compared with the control plants. The simplicity and rapid development of shoots using mature embryos could potentially be used for regenerating superior plants following gene transfer studies in the future.