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Biosorption sites for lead [Pb (II)] in phanerochaete chrysosporium

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2004
Kaya, Levent
Biosorption is a phenomenon involving the mechanisms that basically mediate heavy metal tolerance of microorganisms as well as sequestration of heavy metals from environment. Different classes of microorganisms have different biosorption capacities, as a result of the differences in composition and types of functional groups found on cell surfaces. The present study was undertaken to identify the molecular mechanisms for lead [Pb(II)] biosorption in the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The methodology involved selective blocking of the functional groups known to participate in heavy metal biosorption and allowed us to determine their relative roles in Pb (II) biosorption in this organism. The relative concentrations of the Pb (II) sorbed from the aqueous environment and Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions released to the aqueous environment were measured and compared with both native and chemically-modified biomasses by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique was used to monitor and analyze the molecular-level changes in both native and chemically modified cell surfaces upon Pb (II) exposure. Interactions of Pb (II) with the biomass surface was determined by observing the changes in wavenumber and absorbance of NH stretching and Amide I bands arising from the amine groups and C=O stretching band arising from the carboxyl groups. The roles of phosphate groups and lipids were also investigated. Carboxyl groups seemed to be the most important functional groups for Pb (II) biosorption in P. chrysosporium, since the biosorption capacity dramatically decreased (by 92.8 %) in carboxyl groups-blocked biomass. Amine groups were found to play a secondary and minor role in Pb (II) biosorption, only a slight decrease (6 %) in Pb (II) biosorption was detected with amine groups-blocked biomass. Blocking of phosphate groups