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Friction analysis in cold forging

Cora, Ömer Necati
Friction is one of the important parameters in metal forming processes since it affects metal flow in the die, forming load, strain distribution, tool and die life, surface quality of the product etc. The range of coefficient of friction in different metal forming applications is not well known and the factors affecting variation are ambiguous. Commercially available FEA packages input the coefficient of friction as constant among the whole process which is not a realistic approach. In this study, utility of user-subroutines is integrated into MSC SuperForm v.2004 and MSC Marc v.2003 FEA packages, to apply a variable coefficient of friction depending on the contact interface conditions. Instead of using comparatively simple friction models such as Coulomb, Shear (constant) models, friction models proposed by Wanheim-Bay and Levanov were used to simulate some cold forging operations. The FEA results are compared with the experimental results available in literature for cylinder upsetting. Results show that, large variation on the coefficient of friction is possible depending on the friction model used, the part geometry and the ratio of contact normal pressure to equivalent yield stress. For the ratio of contact normal pressure to equivalent yield stress values above 4, coefficient of friction values are approximately same for both friction models.