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Scour and scour protection at bridge abutments

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2005
Kayatürk, Şerife Yurdagül
Bridge failures are mainly caused by scouring the bed material around bridge foundations during flood. In this study, scour phenomenon around bridge abutments is experimentally studied. Effect of abutment size, location and size of the collars placed around the abutments, time evaluation of scour hole around the abutment, scour characteristics of abutment and pier interaction were experimentally investigated. Scour measurements were conducted in a rectangular channel of 30 m long and 1.5 m wide filled with erodable uniform sediment. In the first part of the study, in order to investigate the size effect of the abutment on the maximum scour depth, abutments of nine different sizes were tested for three different water depths. It was found that the length of the abutment is more important parameter than the width of it. Secondly, efficiency of various sizes of collars, which are used to reduce the local scour depth, located at different elevations around the abutments was determined. It was noticed that when the collar width was increased and placed at or below the bed level, the reduction in scour depth increases considerably. Some tests for partial-collar arrangements around the abutments were conducted and it was shown that instead of full-collar one can use partial-collar arrangements around the abutments to achieve the same efficiency as the full-collar. Time development of scour holes around the abutments with and without collar cases were recorded. It was observed considerable reductions in scour depths around the abutments can be obtained with collars compared to the cases in which there are no collars over the same time period. Finally, a series of experiments were carried out to investigate the interaction between bridge abutments and piers related to the local scour around them. Based on the experiments conducted with two different abutment lengths and pier