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The effect of ploidy level on plant regeneration in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

Parastouk, Yasemin
Three different genotypes of sugar beet (diploid, triploid and tetraploid); 4 varieties from diploid and triploid genotypes Soraya (KWS8123) and Leila (diploid), Visa (H68121) and Kassandra (triploid) and 2 lines from tetraploid genotype ÇBM315 and EA2075 (tetraploid) were used for investigating the effects of ploidy level on plant regeneration. Within three sugar beet genotypes, with respect to the treatments, triploids or tetraploids were found to respond to treatments significantly different when compared with diploids. The responses of polyploids were superior over the responses of diploids. Moreover, varieties from same genotype responded differently to treatments. Two types of calli were obtained; one white and friable with regenerative capacity and the other green and compact with no regenerative capacity. Concentration of sucrose on callus development was observed to be important. High concentration of sucrose (30 g/L) was found to cause discoloration and irresponsiveness of formed calli at callus enlargement and subsequent shoot regeneration stages. Therefore, low concentration (10 g/L) is advised to be used at these stages; although this caused less callus induction. Although initially used for the prevention of tissue discoloration, L-ascorbic acid inclusion into the medium was found to be positively affecting the regeneration capacity. When used at 20 mg/100 mL concentration, the only two spontaneous shoots from the tetraploid EA2075 line were obtained. Subsequently, these shoots were successfully rooted and whole plants were obtained. The effect of silver nitrate, in combination with L-ascorbic acid, on the prevention of sugar beet tissue discoloration was investigated. Unfortunately, the symptoms of discoloration did not diminish. Moreover, callus formation was reduced and the subsequent shoot recovery could not be achieved. Since a total of 3456 explants were used during this study, and only 2 whole plants were regenerated, the efficiency of plant recovery was calculated as a rather low value of 0.058 %.