The implementation of the Ottoman land code of 1858 in eastern Anatolia

Gözel, Oya
The nineteenth century was an era that great centralization and codification attempts were realized in the Ottoman Empire. One of these attempts was the Ottoman Land Code of 1858, which put various land regulations throughout the empire into a standard code. But this standard Code gave different results when applied to different regions which had their own characteristic features. Eastern Anatolia, which had an autonomous position since its incorporation to the Ottoman Empire, was also in the scope of the Land Code. The object of this study is to examine the implementation of the Land Code of 1858 in eastern Anatolia and the impacts of this implementation process in the region. Indeed, the general situation of the region greatly disaffected the implementation of the Code in eastern Anatolia. Because of the dominant disorder within the region and problems of the state in these lands, the Land Code could not be properly implemented in eastern Anatolia. The Land Code and the title deeds, which were distributed in accordance with the Code, were so important that they became the base of later ownership claims. Therefore, the implementation of the Code had deep and long lasting effects on the land patterns and social relations in the region. In this respect, this study will evaluate the implementation process of the Land Code throughout eastern Anatolia and the socio-economic transformation of the region as a result of this process.


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Citation Formats
O. Gözel, “The implementation of the Ottoman land code of 1858 in eastern Anatolia,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2007.