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Gray's value-puralism: a critical analysis

Parmaksız, Abdullah Umut
In this study, John Gray’s theory of value-pluralism is critically analyzed. Gray’s modus vivendi, based on Isaiah Berlin’s criticism of monism, is a theory that aims to create the conditions in which peace and diversity in late-modern societies can be protected. Gray argues that a legally pluralistic system where collectives have autonomy is more serving to peace than its liberal alternatives. This study argues that Gray fails to achieve its goal of promoting diversity. This is due to the fact that Gray’s theory does not recognize ‘personal autonomy’ and ‘right of exit’ as standards for a legitimate regime. It is argued in this study that without ‘personal autonomy’ and ‘right of exit’, legally pluralist systems curb the conditions that makes diversity possible and thereby work at the expense of diversity rather than for diversity.