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Modeling of the flood regimes in coupled stream-aquifer systems

Korkmaz, Serdar
In this study, hydrogeological modeling of the Somme river basin situated in the north of France was made with special emphasis on the stream-aquifer interaction. The coupled model developed at Ecole des Mines de Paris was used. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools were incorporated during all the stages of modeling process for both preparation of input data and visualization of the results of simulations. Initially, the process began with Digital Elevation Model (DEM) analysis. Afterwards, the surface and aquifer grids were generated by using nested grid generators and refinement was made on the stream network and subcatchment boundaries in order to increase the accuracy of numerical solution. In order to run the surface model, meteorological forcing, land use and soil type data were acquired. Surface model was used to partition the precipitation into evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff components. A steady-state piezometric head distribution was computed by the groundwater model to serve as an initial condition to the coupled model. The flow in the unsaturated zone was simulated by using Nash cascade model. The unsteady groundwater and surface flow simulations were performed by taking into consideration the stream-aquifer interaction on a daily time step. The calibration and validation were realized by using the streamflow and piezometric head measurements distributed around the basin. The strong groundwater influence on the hydrology of the basin is well represented by the model. Comparisons of predicted flooded areas in year 2001 were made with other models and a satellite derived image. In the end, several sensitivity analyses were performed for several parameters concerning the groundwater flow.