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Enzyme-catalyzed reductive activation of anticancer drugs ıdarubicin and mitomycin c

Çelik, Haydar
Idarubicin (IDA) and mitomycin C (MC) are clinically effective quinone-containing anticancer agents used in the treatment of several human cancers. Quinone-containing anticancer drugs have the potential to undergo bioreduction by oxidoreductases to reactive species, and thereby exert their cytotoxic effects. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the potential of IDA, in comparison to MC, to undergo reductive activation by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R), NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and P450R-cytochrome P4502B4 (CYP2B4) system by performing both in vitro plasmid DNA damage experiments and enzyme assays. In addition, we examined the potential protective effects of some antioxidants against DNA-damaging effects of IDA and MC resulting from their reductive activation. To achieve these goals, we obtained P450R from sheep lung, beef liver and PB-treated rabbit liver microsomes, b5R from beef liver microsomes and CYP2B4 from PB-treated rabbit liver microsomes in highly purified forms. The plasmid DNA damage experiments demonstrated that P450R is capable of effectively reducing IDA to DNA-damaging species. The effective protections provided by antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase, as well as scavengers of hydroxyl radical, DMSO and thiourea, revealed that the mechanism of DNA damage by IDA involves the generation of ROS by redox cycling of IDA with P450R under aerobic conditions. The extent of DNA damages by both IDA and MC were found to increase with increasing concentrations of the drug or the enzyme as well as with increasing incubation time. IDA was found to have a greater ability to induce DNA damage at high drug concentrations than MC. The plasmid DNA experiments using b5R, on the other hand, showed that, unlike P450R, b5R was not able to reduce IDA to DNA-damaging reactive species. It was also found that in the presence of b5R and cofactor NADH, MC barely induced DNA strand breaks. All the purified P450Rs reduced IDA at about two-fold higher rate than that of MC as shown by the measurement of drug-induced cofactor consumption. This indicates that IDA may be a more potent cytotoxic drug than MC in terms of the generation of reactive metabolites. The results obtained from enzyme assays confirmed the finding obtained from plasmid DNA experiments that while MC is a very poor substrate for b5R, IDA is not a suitable substrate for this enzyme unlike P450R. The reconstitution experiments carried out under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using various amounts of CYP2B4, P450R and lipid DLPC revealed that reconstituted CYP2B4 produced about 1.5-fold and 1.4-fold rate enhancements in IDA and MC reduction catalyzed by P450R alone, respectively. The present results also showed that among the tested dietary antioxidants, quercetin, rutin, naringenin, resveratrol and trolox, only quercetin was found to be highly potent in preventing DNA damage by IDA. These results may have some practical implications concerning the potential use of P450R as therapeutic agent on their own in cancer treatment strategies. Selective targeting of tumor cells with purified P450R by newly developed delivery systems such as using polymers, liposomes or antibodies may produce greater reductive activation of bioreductive drugs in tumor cells. Consequently, this strategy has a high potential to increase the efficacy and selectivity of cancer chemotherapy.