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Relationship between the nat genetic polymorphism and susceptibility to prostate cancer

Dilek, Derya
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevelant cancers in males in many countries, increasing in frequency with age. PCa incidence and mortality rates are not evenly distributed worldwide. Family history is an established risk factor for prostate cancer and families demonstrating autosomal dominant or X-linked transmission of susceptibility have been observed. Although an increasing number of candidate genes or hereditary prostate cancer susceptibility have been identified, only 5 to 10 percent of prostate cancer cases in the population may arise from major susceptibility genes. A few risk factors for PCa development are advanced age, an intact androgen metabolism, ethnicity, and genetic background. Other genetic factors, in combination with possible environmental risk factors for prostate cancer, may have greater public health importance. Genetic polymorphisms that may be associated with prostate cancer risk are much more common in the population than are high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes. In this study, the effect of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and Glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1 and GSTT1) were investigated, since polymorphism in these genes may alter their enzymatic activity and, therefore, their capacity to biotransform xenobiotic compounds. In order to evaluate the potential association between NAT2 , GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and prostate cancer risk, a hospital based case control study was carried out in a Turkish population consisting of 30 histologically confirmed incident prostate cancer cases and 67 control subjects with no present or previous history of cancer. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes showed no significant differences between case and control groups, with respect to their frequencies and it was observed that GSTM1 null genotype was more common in cases with a 60% frequency. Even though the frequency of slow NAT2 acetylator genotype was 80% in cases and 50,7% in controls NAT2 rapid acetylator showed no association with prostate cancer statistically. These results suggested that GSTM1 null genotype is a susceptibility factor for prostate cancer, particularly in the presence of NAT2 slow acetylator genotype with no significance. Further studies with a larger size are required to confirm the presence and significance of this relationship.