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Detection of bladder tumor recurrence by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a novel method

Aydın, Özge Zelal
Bladder cancer is one of the most common urogenital cancers worldwide. Two techniques commonly used for bladder cancer diagnosis are urine cytology and cystoscopy. Cytology is not sensitive for detecting tumors. Cystoscopy is an invasive technique which disturbs patient comfort. In the current study, we used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy as a novel method which is rapid and non-invasive to investigate the bladder tumor recurrence using the bladder wash samples collected in the course of control cystoscopy. This study is unique since it is the first one to use the bladder wash sample in the diagnosis of the bladder tumor by using FT-IR spectroscopy. Molecular investigation of the FT-IR spectra revealed many differences between control and tumor samples such as a considerable increase in protein, carbohydrate and nucleic acids content, and changes in protein and carbohydrate structure. On the basis of the spectral differences, cluster analysis was performed to differentiate between the control and tumorous spectra and we reached to an overall sensitivity (including all individuals with tumor) of 91.8%, a PUNLMP sensitivity of 83.3% and a papilloma sensitivity of 77.8% in spectral range 1444-1457 cm-1. Other spectral ranges also gave similar results. Our results showed that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used to detect the bladder tumors in bladder wash sample with higher sensitivity compared to cytology. In summary, we propose the utilization of the FT-IR spectroscopy for the detection of bladder tumors since specific spectral regions might be used as effective markers for the diagnosis.