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Economics of carbon dioxide sequestration in a mature oil field

Rasheed, Ali Suad
To meet the goal of atmospheric stabilization of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels a technological transformation should occur in the energy sector. One strategy to achieve this is carbon sequestration. Carbon dioxide can be captured from industrial sources and sequestered underground into depleted oil and gas reservoirs. CO2 injected into geological formations, such as mature oil reservoirs can be effectively trapped by hydrodynamical (structural), solution, residual (capillary) and mineral trapping methods. In this work, a case study was conducted using CMG-STARS software for CO2 sequestration in a mature oil field. History matching was done with the available production, bottom hole pressures and water cut data to compare the results obtained from the simulator with the field data. Next, previously developed optimization methods were modified and used for the case of study. The main object of the optimization was to determine the optimal location, number of injection wells, injection rate, injection depth and pressure of wells to maximize the total trapped amount of CO2 while enhancing the amount of oil recovered. A second round of simulations was carried out to study the factors that affect the total oil recovery and CO2 ¬ storage amount. These include relative permeability end points effect, hysteresis effect, fracture spacing and additives of simultaneous injection of carbon dioxide with CO and H2S. Optimization runs were carried out on a mildly heterogeneous 3D model for variety of cases. When compared with the base case, the optimized case led to an increase of 20% in the amount of oil that is recovered; and more than 95% of the injected CO2 was trapped as solution gas on and as an immobile gas. Finally, an investigation of the economical feasibility was accomplished. NPV values for various cases were obtained, selected and studied yielding in a number of cases that are found to be applicable for the field of concern.