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Advanced oxidation techniques for the removal of refractory organics from textile wastewaters

Erol, Funda
Ozonation is an efficient method to degrade refractory organics in textile wastewaters. In recent years, catalytic ozonation is applied to reduce ozone consumption and to increase “chemical oxygen demand” and “total organic carbon” (TOC) removal efficiencies. The ozonation of two industrial dyes, namely Acid Red-151 (AR-151) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was examined separately both in a semi-batch reactor and also in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) by conventional and catalytic ozonation with alumina and perfluorooctyl alumina (PFOA) catalysts. The conventional and catalytic ozonation reactions followed a pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the dye concentration. The highest COD reductions were obtained in the presence of the catalysts at pH=13, with alumina for AR-151 and with PFOA for RBBR. “Residence time distribution” experiments were performed to understand the degree of liquid mixing in the reactor. The behaviour of the FBR was almost equivalent to the behaviour of one or two completely stirred tank reactors in series in the presence of the solid catalyst particles. The volumetric ozone-water mass transfer coefficients (kLa) were found at various gas and liquid flow rates and catalyst dosages in the FBR. A model was developed to find kLa in the reactor by comparing the dissolved O3 concentrations in the experiments with the model results. kLa increased significantly by the increase of gas flow rate. Higher catalysts dosages at the fluidization conditions yielded higher kLa values indicating higher rates of mass transfer. Dye ozonation experiments without catalyst and with alumina or PFOA catalyst were conducted at different conditions of the inlet dye concentration, gas and liquid flow rates, inlet ozone concentration in the gas, catalyst dosage, particle size and pH. The dye and TOC removal percentages were increased with the increase of gas flow rate and with the decrease of both the liquid flow rate and inlet dye concentration. The addition of the catalyst was beneficial to enhance the TOC degradation. The ozone consumed per liter of wastewater was much lower when the catalyst was present in the reactor. In terms of TOC removal and O3 consumption, the most efficienct catalyst was PFOA. According to the organic analysis, the intermediate by-products were oxalic, acetic, formic and glyoxalic acids in RBBR and AR-151 ozonation. The dye and dissolved ozone concentration profiles were predicted from a developed model and the model results were compared with the experimental results to obtain the enhanced kLa values. The presence of the chemical reaction and the catalysts in the FBR, enhanced the kLa values significantly. The enhancement factor (E) was found as between 0.97 and 1.93 for the non-catalytic ozonation and 0.96 and 1.53 for the catalytic ozonation at pH = 2.5. The dimensionless number of Hatta values were calculated between 0.04-0.103 for the sole ozonation of RBBR and AR-151 solutions. According to the calculated Ha values, the reaction occurred in the bulk liquid and in the film being called as the “intermediate regime” in the literature.