A study on Celtic/Galatian impacts on the settlement pattern in Anatolia before the Roman era

Yörükan, Güneş
Anatolia has been the cradle of many different cultures throughout history. One of these was the Celts who migrated from Europe to Anatolia in the 3rd century BC and had various impacts on the settlement pattern of the region called Galatia after their arrival. Therefore in Anatolia urbanization history we know them as Galatians. The main statement of this thesis is that, cultural identity is not a static, inherent quality, but a dynamic and contigent aspect of the existence of people. Therefore cultural identity should be regarded as a pattern continuum. In thisd study, in order to predict the Galatian settlement pattern until thr Roman dominance in the late 1st century BC in Anatolia, European Celtic settlement pattern has been reviewed as well as archaeolgical evidence and the Celtic language. The Hallstatt and the following La Tene periods in European history have been investigated since La Tene period is isochronic with Galatians in Anatolia. From the archaeological evidence in Europe, it is clear that the Celts established defended settlements, mastered the art of iron working and mining, and traded with the classical world. In previous literature, Anatolia Celts/Galatians have been regarded as nomads who were involved mostly in warfare. However, the location of their forts and village-like settlements along the ancient trade routes implies that they were settled people who were engaged in production and trading activities as well, similar to La Tene in Europe. Settlement types and their distribution pattern, linguistic and archaeological evidence investigated in this thesis verify that Celtic cultural identity in the history of Europe and Anatolia should be regarded as a pattern continuum.


Change and Continuity in the Sivas Province, 1908-1918
Dölek, Deniz; Şeker, Nesim; Department of History (2007)
Second Constitutional Era (1908-1918) was a period within which great changes occurred in the Ottoman Empire. On the one hand, it was a part of the modernization process that began in late eighteenth century; on the other hand, it was the last period of the Empire that had its own dynamics. This study is to examine changes and continuities in a locality, the Sivas Province, during the Second Constitutional Regime. The Sivas Province was one of the largest and most populated Anatolian provinces. It located i...
The effects of tanzimat and origins of political conflict between the Armenian and Kurdish communities in the Ottoman Empire, 1839-1876
Özdemir, Fatih; Boztemur, Recep; Department of History (2006)
This thesis, depending on some Ottoman archival documents, examines the effects of the Tanzimat reforms on the Ottoman Armenians and Kurds and the origins of the conflicts amongst these communities in the Ottoman Empire. The reforms initiated in the Tanzimat era had such a transformative effect both on the Ottoman Armenian and Kurdish societies that social, political and economic structures of the two communities changed radically. Due to the effects of the Tanzimat reforms and of these structural changes, ...
A spatial inquiry into western Anatolian urban centers: Tire in the making
Caner Yüksel, Çağla; Bakırer, Ömür; Department of Architecture (2009)
Western Anatolia witnessed a crucial and eventful period between the end of the 13th and the middle of the 15th centuries. The region stood in a critical position giving way to trade between East and West, located at the junction of the sea and land routes. This following study concentrates on a crucial aspect of Western Anatolia within these circumstances on the rise, through the 14th and 16th centuries. That is to say, this thesis focuses on the establishment and remodeling of the urban centers in Western...
Urban transformation of Ottoman port cities in the nineteenth century : change from Ottoman Beirut to french mandatory Beirut
Öztürk, Pelin Kihtir; Aktüre, Sevgi; Department of Middle East Studies (2006)
This thesis attempts to give the increasing importance of Ottoman port cities in the urban hierarchy during the nineteenth century and analyzes the urban transformation of these cities under the forces of changing administrative and socio-economic structure of the empire. The impact of European economic penetration and Ottoman Tanzimat Reforms were indicated as major causes for this changing structure. Beirut, being one of the major port cities of the Ottoman Empire is studied as a case study. The changing ...
New Or Transformed: Design Approaches Of Antakya Houses In The French Mandate Period
Rifaioğlu, Mert Nezih (Middle East Technical University Faculty of Architecture, 2021-12-01)
Antakya, known as Antioch during the ancient period, has been inhabited continuously and formed/re-formed and transformed from antiquity to the present by different cultures and empires. It had an organic city form organized with culs-de-sac towards the end of the Ottoman Period. Previous research particularly conducted on its multi-layered urban identity together with on certain buildings from antiquity focuses on the study of the architecture that formed throughout the Ottoman period until it ended. On th...
Citation Formats
G. Yörükan, “A study on Celtic/Galatian impacts on the settlement pattern in Anatolia before the Roman era,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2009.