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A study on Celtic/Galatian impacts on the settlement pattern in Anatolia before the Roman era

Yörükan, Güneş
Anatolia has been the cradle of many different cultures throughout history. One of these was the Celts who migrated from Europe to Anatolia in the 3rd century BC and had various impacts on the settlement pattern of the region called Galatia after their arrival. Therefore in Anatolia urbanization history we know them as Galatians. The main statement of this thesis is that, cultural identity is not a static, inherent quality, but a dynamic and contigent aspect of the existence of people. Therefore cultural identity should be regarded as a pattern continuum. In thisd study, in order to predict the Galatian settlement pattern until thr Roman dominance in the late 1st century BC in Anatolia, European Celtic settlement pattern has been reviewed as well as archaeolgical evidence and the Celtic language. The Hallstatt and the following La Tene periods in European history have been investigated since La Tene period is isochronic with Galatians in Anatolia. From the archaeological evidence in Europe, it is clear that the Celts established defended settlements, mastered the art of iron working and mining, and traded with the classical world. In previous literature, Anatolia Celts/Galatians have been regarded as nomads who were involved mostly in warfare. However, the location of their forts and village-like settlements along the ancient trade routes implies that they were settled people who were engaged in production and trading activities as well, similar to La Tene in Europe. Settlement types and their distribution pattern, linguistic and archaeological evidence investigated in this thesis verify that Celtic cultural identity in the history of Europe and Anatolia should be regarded as a pattern continuum.