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Cytotaxonomic studies on the genus salvia (labiatae) in Turkey

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2009
İnanç Gök, Tuğba
The genus Salvia L. is significantly important with regard to both its worldwide distribution and usage areas including food, medical and perfumary industries. In this current study, it is targeted to address the chromosome numbers and karyomorphology of the ten species and one variety of the genus Salvia. All of the eleven taxa examined in this study are economically significant and nine of these are endemic to Turkey. To define the chromosome numbers and karyomorphology of these eleven taxa somatic chromosomes of the each were examined. Mitotic metaphase chromosomes were obtained from root meristems of germinating seeds, which were pre-treated in α-bromonaphtalene at 4ºC for 16 h, then fixed in Carnoy solution (3 parts of ethanol: 1 parts of glacial acetic acid) at 4ºC for 24h and stored in 70 % ethanol. Fixed root tips were stained in 2 % aceto-orcein and squashed in a drop of 45 % acetic acid. Long arm, short arm, total length of the each chromosomes were measured; relative length, arm ratio, centromeric index of the each chromosome were calculated. Karyogram and haploid idiograms were drawn by computer-aided analysis programme (Bs200pro). A cluster analysis of the karyotype data was carried out to examine karyotype similarity among taxa. Somatic chromosome numbers have been counted as 2n=2x=14 for the endemic taxa S. divaricata Montbret & Aucher, S. euphratica Montbret & Aucher ex Bentham (var. leiocalycina (Rech. fil.) Hedge) and S. recognita Fisch. & Mey.; 2n=2x=14-1B for Salvia rosifolia Sm.; 2n=20 for S. longipedicellata Hedge, S. vermifolia Hedge & Hub.-Mor. and S. yosgadensis Freyn & Bornm.; 2n=2x=22 for S. aethiopis L., S. cilicica Boiss. & Kotschy, S. hypargeia Fisch. & Mey. and 2n=2x=32 for S. napifolia Jacq. respectively. In general, the chromosomes are short with median and submedian centromeres. The current study is essential for being the first report about chromosome numbers and karyomorphology of the six endemic taxa, namely S. divaricata, S. euphratica var. leiocalycina, S. longipedicellata, S. rosifolia, S. vermifolia and S. yosgadensis. Moreover, in spite of the chromosome numbers of S. aethiopis, S. cilicica, S. hypargeia and S. recognita are known, this research is the first study for their karyomorphologies.