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Effect of ultrasound and high hydrostatic pressure (hhp) on liquefaction and quality parameters of selected honey varieties.

Basmacı, İpek
Heat treatment (around 50°C) is a major step in honey filling and packaging that is applied before filtration to decrease viscosity, reduce the moisture level, to destroy yeasts, liquefy crystals and delay crystallization. As a result, formation of Hydroxy Methyl Furfural (HMF), decrease in enzymatic activity, color deterioration, decrease in viscosity and many other structural changes are observed. HMF is produced as a result of Maillard reaction and/or hexose dehydration -which is undesirable-, practically, it is found in fresh honey in low levels, and increases due to heat treatment, storage temperature, pH (acidity) and sugar concentration of honey. HMF level and diastase number are important quality parameters and shelf life indicators of honey. Alternatives of v heat treatment may be the use of ultrasound and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) to decrease viscosity, liquefy honey and thus minimise adverse affects of heat treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of HHP (220-330 MPa, 50-60°C, time) and ultrasound (24 kHz) on liquefaction and quality parameters (HMF, diastase number, color and viscosity) of different honey varieties (sunflower, cotton and canola) and to compare the changes with heat treated (50°C and 60°C, time) and untreated honey. Based on the results of the chemical and physical analysis, for HHP treatment the best treatment combination was determined as 220 MPa, 50°C, 106 min. For ultrasound treatment the best treatment combinations were determined as 7 mm probe- 0.5 cycle (batch) applications. On this basis the study points out that Ultrasound and HHP can be suggested as alternative methods to traditional thermal treatment for the liquefaction of honey crystals. When compared to thermal treatment, Ultrasound is advantageous in shorter application times, slight changes in quality parameters and ease in operation. HHP treatment is also an alternative method with shorter application times and lower HMF values.