Investigation of waterhammer problems in the penstocks of small hydropower plants

Çalamak, Melih
Waterhammer is an unsteady hydraulic problem which is commonly found in closed conduits of hydropower plants, water distribution networks and liquid pipeline systems. Due to either a malfunction of the system or inadequate operation conditions, pipeline may collapse or burst erratically resulting in substantial damages, and human losses in some cases. In this thesis, time dependent flow situations in the penstocks of small hydropower plants are investigated. A software, HAMMER, that utilizes method of characteristics for solving nonlinear differential equations of transient flow is used in the study. In two case studies, various operation conditions such as load rejection, load acceptance and instant load rejection are studied. The parameters and situations affecting pressure and turbine speed rises are investigated. Computed and available measured values are found to be very close. Also, differences between waterhammer responses of the Francis and Pelton turbines are revealed. Finally, specific protective measures are suggested to either diminish and/or avoid the harmful effects of waterhammer problems in small hydropower plants.


Comparison of Performance of Two Run-of-River Plants during Transient Conditions
Çalamak, Melih; Bozkuş, Zafer (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2013-10-01)
Water hammer is an unsteady hydraulic problem commonly found in closed conduits of hydropower plants, water distribution networks, and liquid pipeline systems. Because of either a malfunction of a system or inadequate operation conditions, a pipeline may collapse or burst erratically, resulting in substantial damages and human loss in some cases. Therefore, it is crucial that engineers design and/or analyze projects with reliable computing methods for all foreseeable operation situations. In this paper, tra...
Development of a computer software for hydraulic design of small hydropower facility
Alimoğlu, Emir; Yanmaz, A Melih; Bozkuş, Zafer; Department of Civil Engineering (2012)
Run-of-river type hydroelectrical power plants are the facilities that use only the available flow on the river without storing it to generate electrical energy. These kind of facilities are composed of structural components such as diversion weir, conveyance line, forebay, penstock and power house. In this thesis, a computer program called “MiniHEPP Hydraulic Design” is developed in order to perform the hydraulic design of run-of-river type hydropower plants. This program which runs under the Windows opera...
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Şahiner, Halit; Göğüş, Mustafa; Department of Civil Engineering (2012)
Tyrolean type water-intake structures are commonly used on mountain rivers to supply water to hydropower stations. The amount of water to be diverted from the main channel is the major concern in these kind of structures and should not be less than the design discharge. In this study a physical model of a Tyrolean type water-intake structure was built at the laboratory and the diverted flow from the main channel through the intake structure having steel racks and perforated plates of different types were me...
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Melek, Abiddin Berhan; Göğüş, Mustafa; Department of Civil Engineering (2017)
Tyrolean weir is known as an effective device to separate major part of sediment from the main channel flow in order to provide required sediment-free water discharge for run-off river hydropower plants. Basically, in the design of Tyrolean weirs, the main concern is to divert at least the design discharge of the facility while it permits to enter the minimum amount of bed-sediment to the system. In this study, water and sediment capture rates of Tyrolean type water-intake structures were investigated for a...
Utilization of CFD tools in the design process of a Francis turbine
Okyay, Gizem; Aydın, İsmail; Department of Civil Engineering (2010)
Francis type turbines are commonly used in hydropower generation. Main components of the turbine are spiral case, stay vanes, guide vanes, turbine runner and the draft tube. The dimensions of these parts are dependent mainly on the design discharge, head and the speed of the rotor of the generators. In this study, a methodology is developed for parametric optimization by incorporating Matlab codes developed and commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes into the design process. The design process s...
Citation Formats
M. Çalamak, “Investigation of waterhammer problems in the penstocks of small hydropower plants,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2010.