Production and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio-nut shell

Özsin, Gamzenur
In this study production and characterization of activated carbon from an agricultural waste, pistachio-nut shells, was investigated. To determine optimum production conditions by chemical activation method, effect of tempreature (300, 500, 700 and 900 oC) and effect of impregnation ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 as activation agent:sample) were investigated by applying two different methods (raw material activation and char activation) and with two different activation agents (phosphoric acid and potassium hydroxide). To produce activated carbon, all the impregnated samples were heated to the final activation temperature under a continuous nitrogen flow (100 cm3/min) and at a heating rate of 10 oC/min and were held at that temperature for 1 hour. Pore structures of activated carbons were determined by N2 adsorption and micro-mesopore analysis was made by “Non-local Density Functional Theory” and “Monte Carlo Simulation” method (NLDFT-Monte Carlo Simulation Method). BET surface areas of produced activated carbons were found from N2 adsorption data in the relative pressure range of 0.01 to 0.15. BET surface areas of phosphoric acid activated carbons by raw material activation method were found between 880 and 1640 m2/g. The highest value of the BET surface area was obtained in the case of the activated carbon which was produced with an impregnation ratio of 3/1 (g H3PO4/g raw material), at an activation temperature of 500 oC. The repeatibility was also investigated on phosphoric acid activated carbons which were produced with conventional raw matererial activation method. Results showed that, both the BET surface area values and pore size distributions were consistent among themselves. On the other hand char activation experiments with phosphoric acid produced activated carbons having lower BET surface areas than the ones obtained with raw material activation method by creating mesoporous structure. When the same char activation method was tried with potassium hydroxide, it was concluded that elevated temperatures could help in producing activated carbons with high BET surface areas by creating microporous structure. Results also showed that properties of activated carbon such as ash content, slurry pH value, true density, elemental composition, methylene blue number and surface morphology were strongly affected by both production conditions and production method, as pore structure was affected considerably.


Comparison of Fenitrothion and Trifluralin Adsorption on Organo-Zeolites and Activated Carbon. Part II: Thermodynamic Parameters and the Suitability of the Kinetic Models of Pesticide Adsorption
LÜLE ŞENÖZ, Güzide Meltem; Atalay, Mustafa Ümit (Informa UK Limited, 2014-07-04)
The suitability of two kinetic models and the thermodynamic parameters of pesticide adsorption were investigated based on obtained data of previous studies. Kinetic evaluation indicated that the pesticides adsorption on adsorbents followed the pseudo-second-order model. Gibbs free energy (Delta G degrees), enthalpy (Delta H degrees), and entropy (Delta S degrees) were calculated for thermodynamic parameters by using linearized Arrhenius equation. The results indicated that the sorption process of fenitrothi...
Production and characterization of activated carbon from horse chestnut kernel
Demirok, Tuğba; Yücel, Hayrettin; Department of Chemical Engineering (2015)
The production of activated carbon from horse chestnut kernel by chemical activation using phosphoric acid and characterization of produced activated carbons are presented in this work. To investigate effect of process parameters on porous structure of activated carbons, chemical activation was performed at the temperature of 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 ºC for impregnation ratios (weight of activation agent / weight g of sample) of 1:1 and 2:1. Chemical activation experiments were carried out in a quart...
Utilization of clay minerals in wastewater treatment: Organic matter removal with kaolinite
Hascakir, Berna; DÖLGEN, DENİZ (2008-01-01)
The aim of presented study is the investigation of clay minerals utilization in the wastewater treatment. The chemical treatability studies were carried out by the refined packing type kaolinite (hydrate aluminum silicate). By testing kaolinite as coagulant and flocculant separately within the experimental studies, optimum doses were determined, and on the basis of treatment efficiencies, results were compared with the chemicals such as alum, lime and ferric chloride which are widely used. The removal of or...
Effectiveness of algae in the treatment of a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater
Tarlan, Esra; Dilek, Filiz Bengü; Yetiş, Ülkü (2002-04-27)
In this study, the ability of algae to treat a wood-based pulp and paper industry wastewater was investigated. Tests were performed in batch reactors seeded with a mixed culture of algae. Under different lighting and initial wastewater strength conditions, changes in COD, AOX and color contents of reactors were followed with time. Algae were found to remove up to 58% of COD, 84% of color and 80% of AOX from pulp and paper industry wastewaters. No remarkable differences were observed in COD and color when li...
Determination of ambient elementel and organic carbon concentrations in urban and suburban atmospheres in ankara: estimation of secondary organic aerosol
Koçak, Ebru; Öztürk, Fatma; Aslan Kılavuz, Seda; İmamoğlu, İpek; Tuncel, Süleyman Gürdal (null; 2017-11-04)
The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elementel carbon (EC) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in atmospheric particles were investigated at two sites in Ankara, Turkey. The results show that, mean values of EC, OC, SOA for urban station are 2.30, 10.44 and 13.59 μg/m3 respectively; the mean values of EC, OC, SOA for the suburban station were recorded as 0.85, 5.40 and 7.49 μg/m3 respectively. The summer and winter values of the EC concentration in the urban station were found to be 2.17, 2.48 μg/m3 ,...
Citation Formats
G. Özsin, “Production and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio-nut shell,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2011.