Planning and design criteria to make urban transport more sustainable: the case of Baku

Bayramoğlu, Gülnar
Since the industrial revolution, technological developments and increased population have caused environmental damages such as lavish use of sources, pollution increased waste areas, poisoned wastes, harmless gasses, decreased green areas, global warming and climate change, harming of the ozone layer, decreased forests areas and natural sources. Appearance of the term of Global Warming makes the humanity to revise their facilities in all fields. To protect the nature and architectural environment, firstly, green architecture, ecological architecture and then sustainability occurred. This term has been proposed not to be a new term but a response to environmental disturbances caused by human activities and it is re-conceptualization of architecture. Sustainable architecture or sustainability is lot more extensive than ecological and green architecture. It contains the imbalance between environmental problems which is natural environment and consumption that occurred all around the world. An important part of sustainability debate focused on urban planning and design for more sustainable forms and patterns. In particular it is discussed that planning and design of urban areas have a major effect on transport and therefore can help reduce car usage, emissions, global warming and climate change. There are many planning and design approaches and movement that introduce certain criteria and strategies to prevent car dependency and encourage people to use public transportation and walking. To achieve sustainable transport, there should be design for walkable and easy accessible areas. Planning movements, such as New Urbanism and Transit Oriented Development, particularly came to the forefront of planning and influenced planning approaches. However, when review the literature, it is seen that planning movements, such as New Urbanism and Transit Oriented Development originated and were implemented mostly in West Europeean and North American Cities. The purpose of this study is to find out whether all those criteria, principles and strategies are also relevant planning approaches for more non-western cities like Baku which has a very different planning background and therefore possibly different urban form and tranmsport issues. In order to answer the abovementioned question, planning and design approaches in the literatureand and in these recent planning movements were studied and a check list was formed which indicate planning and design approaches that can help attain a more sustainable transport outcome. The checklist was then applied to the case of Baku.


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Citation Formats
G. Bayramoğlu, “Planning and design criteria to make urban transport more sustainable: the case of Baku,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2011.