The Contribution of self-control, emotion regulation, rumination, and gender to test anxiety of university students

Dora, Ayşe Gizem
The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between gender, self-control, emotion regulation, rumination and test anxiety. In other words, the study aimed at investigating how well each of the mentioned independent variables contributes to explain variance of test anxiety. The participants (N=188) were reached by convenient sampling procedure. The sample consisted of preparatory students studying in a private university in Ankara. Data were collected by a demographic form and four scales as Test Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1980), Self-Control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003), and Ruminative Response Scale (Treynor, Gonzalez, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2003). For this study, hierarchical multiple regression analysis was utilized to examine the data. The results revealed that gender, self-control, two emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and suppression) and also brooding as a ruminative response significantly correlated to test anxiety of university students. Furthermore, self-control and cognitive reappraisal were found to be correlated with test anxiety stronger than the other independent variables. Reflection as another ruminative response was not found to be correlating with test anxiety within the suggested model. The findings obtained from the present study are discussed with regards to the related literature, and conclusions were drawn accordingly.