Investigation of fluid structure interaction in cardiovascular system from diagnostic and pathological perspective

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2012
Salman, Hüseyin Enes
Atherosclerosis is a disease of the cardiovascular system where a stenosis may develop in an artery which is an abnormal narrowing in the blood vessel that adversely affects the blood flow. Due to the constriction of the blood vessel, the flow is disturbed, forming a jet and recirculation downstream of the stenosis. Dynamic pressure fluctuations on the inner wall of the blood vessel leads to the vibration of the vessel structure and acoustic energy is propagated through the surrounding tissue that can be detected on the skin surface. Acoustic energy radiating from the interaction of blood flow and stenotic blood vessel carries valuable information from a diagnostic perspective. In this study, a constricted blood flow is modeled by using ADINA finite element analysis software together with the blood vessel in the form of a thin cylindrical shell with an idealized blunt constriction. The flow is considered as incompressible and Newtonian. Water properties at indoor temperature are used for the fluid model. The diameter of the modeled vessel is 6.4 mm with 87% area reduction at the throat of the stenosis. The flow is investigated for Reynolds numbers 1000 and 2000. The problem is handled in three parts which are rigid wall Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solution, structural analysis of fluid filled cylindrical shell, and Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) solutions of fluid flow and vessel structure. The pressure fluctuations and consequential vessel wall vibrations display broadband spectral content over a range of several hundred Hz with strong fluid-structural coupling. Maximum dynamic pressure and vibration amplitudes are observed around the reattachment point of the flow near the exit of the stenosis and this effect gradually decreases along downstream of flow. Results obtained by the numerical simulations are compared with relevant studies in the literature and it is concluded that ADINA can be used to investigate these types of problems involving high frequency pressure fluctuations of the fluid and the resulting vibratory motion of the surrounding blood vessel structure.

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Citation Formats
H. E. Salman, “Investigation of fluid structure interaction in cardiovascular system from diagnostic and pathological perspective,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2012.