Preparation of functional surfaces using zeolite nanocrystals for biosensor and biomedical applications

Download
2012
Kirdeciler, Salih Kaan
Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates which have highly ordered pore structures and high surface area. Also the tailorable surface properties, high ion-exchange capability, high chemical, thermal, and mechanical strength make these particles an important candidate for various application such as sensors, catalysis, dielectric materials, separation, and membrane technologies. Although zeolites have these unique properties, applications where zeolites are integrated into devices according to their application areas, are limited due to the powder form of the material. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of zeolite nanoparticles on conductometric biosensor performance and cell viability measurements. Firstly, zeolite attachment on silicon surfaces was investigated by attaching silicalite and zeolite A nanoparticles onto the silicon substrates by direct attachment methodology in a closely packed monolayer form with perfect orientation and full coverage without using any chemical linker. Furthermore, the ability to pattern these zeolite crystals on silicon substrates with electron beam lithography and photolithography techniques was investigated. With the combination of electron beam lithography and direct attachment methodology, zeolite patterns were produced with feature sizes as small as a single silicalite nanoparticle thick line, that is approximately 500 nm. This approach has the ability of patterning very small features on silicon substrate, but the drawback is the long patterning time and lack of electron beam stability during long pattern formation process. Accordingly, it is almost impossible to form large patterns with electron beam lithography systems. Afterwards, to have full control on surfaces with differentiated areas on solid substrates, patterns of one type of zeolite crystals was formed on the monolayer of another type of zeolite layer with electron beam lithography for the first time. The same closed packed and highly oriented silicalite patterns were successfully formed on zeolite A monolayers and vice versa. Then photolithography technique was combined with direct attachment methodology to overcome the problem of the lack of total patterned area. With this technique, it was possible to pattern the whole silicon wafer in a couple of seconds, however the feature size of the zeolite patterns was limited with the infrastructures of the mask fabricated for photolithography studies. In this particular study, zeolite lines patterns with a minimum of 5 µm thickness were prepared and the total patterned area was kept constant at 1 cm2. Similar to what was obtained by electron beam lithography study, zeolite A patterns were formed on silicalite monolayers with the minimum feature size of 5 µm and vice versa. In the second part of the study, zeolite films were prepared on the transducers of conductometric biosensors using dip coating technique and named as Zeolite Coated Transducers (ZCT). Electrodes prepared using a mixture of zeolite and enzyme solution and then subjected to casting using glutaraldehyde were called Zeolite Membrane Transducers (ZMT). The operational and storage stabilities were determined to be in an acceptable range using ZCTs for conductometric urea biosensors. It was observed that using electrodes fabricated by the ZCT technique enhanced the biosensor signals up to two times and showed a rapid response after the addition of urea to the medium when it was compared with Standard Membrane Transducers (SMT). This enhancement can be explained by the lack of GA layer on top of the film, which acts as a diffusion barrier and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. On the second part of this conductometric biosensor study, effect of zeolite modification with methyl viologen (MV) and silver nanoparticles (Ag+ and Ag0), as well as the effect of changing Si/Al ratio was investigated with three different zeolite Beta particles which have Si/Al ratios of 40, 50, and 60. There were no significant effect of MV modification on ZMTs and there was no response observed with Ag+ and Ag0 modified zeolites. However, it was observed that conductometric responses increased with increasing Si/Al ratio for ZMTs. This behavior can be due to an increased hydrophobicity and/or the increasing acidic strength with the increasing Si/Al ratio within the zeolite crystals. Also ZCTs showed higher responses with respect to both SMTs and ZMTs. When compared with SMTs and ZMTs, ZCTs had higher reproducibility due to the controlled thickness of zeolite thin film by dip coating, and the controlled amount of enzyme adsorbed on this film. In the third part of the study, effect of zeolites on cell proliferation with MG63 osteoblast cells and NIH3T3 fibroblast cells were investigated. For that purpose, zeolite A, silicalite, and calcined forms of these zeolites were patterned with photolithography technique onto silicon wafers. Three different patterns prepared for this particular study, which has 0.125cm2, 0.08825cm2, and 0.04167cm2 zeolite patterned areas on 1 cm2 samples. In that way, not only the zeolite type and effect of calcination of zeolites, but also the effect of zeolite amount on MG63 osteoblast cells and NIH3T3 fibroblast cells were investigated. Silicalite coated samples were observed to have higher amount of cells than zeolite A coated samples after 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation. This may be referred to the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties, surface charge, and/or particle size of zeolites. Also it is observed that higher zeolite amount on samples resulted in an increase in the number of cells attached to the samples. There was also a significant increase in the number of cells upon using calcined silicalite samples. Accordingly, it can be hypothesized that zeolite pores result in an enhancement of protein adsorption and proliferation, even if this only occurs at the pore openings. On the other hand, there was no positive effect of calcining zeolite A. This result was expected since there is no structure directing agent used in synthesis procedure of zeolite A, which again supports the fact that pores might have some role in cell attachment.

Suggestions

Fabrication of functionalized citrus pectin/silk fibroin scaffolds for skin tissue engineering
Türkkan, Sibel; Atila, Deniz; Akdağ, Akın; Tezcaner, Ayşen (Wiley, 2018-10-01)
In this study, novel porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds from silk fibroin (SF) and functionalized (amidated and oxidized) citrus pectin (PEC) were developed for skin tissue engineering applications. Crosslinking was achieved by Schiff's reaction in borax presence as crosslinking coordinating agent and CaCl2 addition. After freeze-drying and methanol treatment, plasma treatment (10 W, 3 min) was applied to remove surface skin layer formed on scaffolds. 3D matrices had high porosity (83%) and interconnec...
Synthesis of calcium carbonate particles for biomedical applications
Oral, Çağatay Mert; Ercan, Batur; Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (2020)
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles have been widely used in biomedical applications owing to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In order to effectively utilize CaCO3 particles in biomedical applications, their physical and chemical properties should be systematically controlled. However, this is a challenging task due to the presence of three different anhydrous CaCO3 polymorphs having complex crystallization behavior. In this thesis, CaCO3 particles were synthesized at distinct environments to c...
Implementation and comparison of reconstruction algorithms for magnetic resonance-electric impedance tomography (mr-eit)
Martin Lorca, Dario; Eyüboğlu, Behçet Murat; Department of Biomedical Engineering (2007)
In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MR-EIT), crosssectional images of a conductivity distribution are reconstructed. When current is injected to a conductor, it generates a magnetic field, which can be measured by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. MR-EIT reconstruction algorithms can be grouped into two: current density based reconstruction algorithms (Type-I) and magnetic flux density based reconstruction algorithms (Type-II). The aim of this study is to implement a series of r...
A mechanism for the enhanced attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts on anodized 316L stainless steel with nano-pit arrays
Ni, Siyu; Sun, Linlin; Ercan, Batur; Liu, Luting; Ziemer, Katherine; Webster, Thomas J. (Wiley, 2014-08-01)
In this study, 316L stainless steel with tunable nanometer pit sizes (0, 25, 50, and 60 nm) were fabricated by an anodization procedure in an ethylene glycol electrolyte solution containing 5 vol % perchloric acid. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the 316L stainless steel were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nano-pit arrays on all of the 316L stainless steel samples were in a regular arrang...
Preparation of iron oxide nanoparticles by microwave synthesis and their characterization
Acarbas, Ozge; Ozenbas, Macit (American Scientific Publishers, 2008-02-01)
In this study production of fine particle Fe2O3 via microwave processing of Fe(NO3)(3)center dot nH(2)O followed by low temperature annealing was reported. XRD was used to characterize the structural properties of nanoparticles. Approximate particle sizes were between 3-13 nm according to Scherrer's equation. Single point BET measurement results also show that samples have large surface area and they are nanometer sized particles. TEM study was conducted to examine the structure of the nanoparticles. TEM fi...
Citation Formats
S. K. Kirdeciler, “Preparation of functional surfaces using zeolite nanocrystals for biosensor and biomedical applications,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2012.