MTDNA based genetic diversity of native sheep breeds and Anatolian mouflon (Ovis Gmelini Anatolica)

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2012
Demirci, Sevgin
In the present study, history of domestic sheep were investigated by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based haplogroups (HPG) of 628 samples and mtDNA control region (CR) sequences of 240 samples from 13 Turkish sheep breeds which were located in the hearth of the first domestication center. Also, 30 Anatolian wild sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) mtDNA CR sequences were obtained to contribute to the scenarios on initial domestication stages of sheep. Haplogroup compositions of breeds were identified with SSCP method by using mtDNA ND2 region. The genetic diversity and relationship between haplogroups were calculated. Phylogenetic analyses of haplogroups such as median joining networks and neighbor joining trees were constructed for mtDNA CR, cytochrome B (cytB) and combined CR-cytB sequences with sequences from the present study together with sequences retrieved from NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). Results of the present study showed that all previously observed haplogroups (HPG A-E) were present in Turkish sheep breeds. Two individuals from rare HPG D and eleven individuals from rare HPG E were detected and sequenced. With increased sample size, for HPG E, past population expansion was observed as was the case of HPG A, B and C with mismatch distributions and neutrality tests. Spatial autocorrelation analyses and synthetic map with respect to mtDNA (maternal) pattern revealed that Turkey was separated into two regions which may be attributed to the imprints of third migration of sheep associated with the arrivals of nomadic Turks to Anatolia nearly 1000 years before present. Finally, Ovis gmelinii anatolica samples exhibited two haplotypes; one of them belongs to HPG A (possibly feral domesticate), and the other one shows a distinct haplotype (close to HPG E and C) that was not observed before. Observed, low mtDNA diversity might be the result of isolation, fragmentation, extinction of fragments and bottlenecks. Ovis gmelinii anatolica can be part of the evolved descendants of the wild sheep which gave birth to the domestic sheep.

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Citation Formats
S. Demirci, “MTDNA based genetic diversity of native sheep breeds and Anatolian mouflon (Ovis Gmelini Anatolica),” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2012.