Revealing the history of Anatolian sheep domestication by using retrovirus integrations

Ayanoğlu, İhsan Cihan
In the present study, it was aimed to contribute to the understanding of evolutionary history of sheep by using endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (enJSRV) integrations in 220 samples from 11 Turkish sheep breeds (Karayaka, Dağlıç, Kıvırcık, Sakız, Akkaraman, İvesi, Norduz, Karagül, Hemşin, Gökçeada and Morkaraman) and also in 30 samples from Anatolian wild sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica). Retrotypes of individuals were determined based on enJSRV integrations. The genetic distances between breeds were calculated and spatial distribution of retrotypes in Turkish sheep breeds have been determined by construction of synthetic maps. In the study it has been shown that all previously observed retrotypes for Turkish sheep breeds (R2, R4 and R6) were also present among the individuals of the present study. In addition to these retrotypes, previously non-observed retrotypes for Turkish breeds (R0, R1 and R7) were also observed in Turkish sheep breeds which have been examined in this study. Different retrotype frequencies for Turkish sheep breeds have been observed when compared to previous studies. Spatial distribution of retrotypes showed that Turkey was separated into two broad regions where the regions were represented by fat-tailed and thin-tailed sheep breeds, generally. Seven of 30 Anatolian wild sheep samples exhibited retrotype of primitive breeds (R0) and also some individuals exhibited a new retrotype where there are no enJSRV integrations for enJSRV-6 integration site which was assumed to be “fixed insertion” previously. Thus, the present study brings new insight into evaluation of enJSRV-6 integration which is to use this integration and suggests that it can also be used as a polymorphic integration site. Also, comparative studies of enJSRV markers with sex dependent (mtDNA and Y-linked) markers indicated that possible second migration of the sheep may be mediated by males. The present study examines the enJSRV polymorphismthat is present in Turkey with a high resolution. The results contributes to the understanding of the evolutionary history of sheep and gives insights about the shaping of the genetic diversity observed among domestic sheep over Turkey on the basis of enJSRV integrations. Furthermore, polymorphism in enJSRV-6 especially high frequency of newly observed allele is may be indicating an interesting event related with the sheep domestication.


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Demirci, Sevgin; Togan, İnci Zehra; Department of Bioinformatics (2012)
In the present study, history of domestic sheep were investigated by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based haplogroups (HPG) of 628 samples and mtDNA control region (CR) sequences of 240 samples from 13 Turkish sheep breeds which were located in the hearth of the first domestication center. Also, 30 Anatolian wild sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) mtDNA CR sequences were obtained to contribute to the scenarios on initial domestication stages of sheep. Haplogroup compositions of breeds were identified with SSCP meth...
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In the first part of the present study, samples of 13 native Turkish sheep breeds (n=628) were examined, individually and comparatively, with respect to their 19 microsatellite loci to characterize them by employing various statistical analyses. Low FST values, high mean number of alleles and allelic richness as well as results of Factorial Correspondence Analysis and Structure analyses showed the degree of admixture between native sheep breeds of Turkey, IVE and SAK were observed as the most distincts of t...
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In the present study, within and among breed genetic variability in seven native Turkish sheep breeds (Akkaraman, Dağlıç, Gökçeada, İvesi, Karayaka, Kıvırcık and Morkaraman) were analyzed based on 20 microsatellite loci. For the analysis, various statistical methods such as Neighbor-Net, Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA) and Structure were used. High level of genetic variability within the Turkish breeds was observed. Gene pools of the breeds were visualized and found that they are highly overlapping ...
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Several archaeological and genetic studies indicated that Southeastern Anatolia was the only center of domestication for sheep. The study presented here aims to understand how and when domestic sheep were transported across Anatolia into west from the domestication center by using ancient DNA. In order to achieve that, ancient DNA was extracted from 234 sheep bone samples dating between Epipaleolithic and 2800 BCE from 9 archaeological excavations (Tepecik-Çiftlik, Yeşilova, Ulucak, Aktopraklık, Barcın, Çat...
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The Turkish native sheep breeds, possibly being the neighbours of the earliest domesticated sheep populations, might be harbouring important genetic characteristics to be employed in the future for the improvement of sheep breeds. In order to design a conservation strategy, their genetic diversities must be determined. In the present study, based on three microsatellite loci, the genetic diversity of the Kivircik, Awassi, Akkaraman breeds (native) of Turkey as well as two of their crossbreeds Turkgeldi and ...
Citation Formats
İ. C. Ayanoğlu, “Revealing the history of Anatolian sheep domestication by using retrovirus integrations,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2013.