Dynamics of policy formation in Turkey and the U.S. : a comparative case study of two reform initiatives

Keser Aschenberger, Filiz
The bond between the state and education has become stronger due to expended role and control of the state over education especially in the 21st century. Control of the state on education is embodied in educational policies which are the apparatus of modern states used to shape the education system in accordance with the basic interests and values of the society. However, educational policy is a complex, dynamic and multi-tiered concept that is formulated in a diverse sociopolitical system. Understanding the context and the dynamics of educational policy making is required to understand the dynamics of any educational system. This study aimed to investigate the formulation process of educational policies in Turkey and the U.S. through the perceptions of key actors in policy making process. On a broader perspective, this study tried to examine how certain issues became the agenda of the governments, how educational policies were formulated, under what conditions, in which context, and by which agents (persons or groups). For this purpose a qualitative comparative case study design was applied. Two specific policy initiatives of teacher education and teacher quality policies in Turkey (Career Ladders for Teachers, 2005) and Wisconsin, U.S. (Teacher Education Program Approval and Licenses: PI34, 2000) were focused as cases. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and document analysis. Seven key policy makers in each case were interviewed, and primary and secondary documents related to policies were collected. A descriptive, analytical and comparative approach was followed during the data analysis and interpretation. Results of this study showed that policy formulation process in education in two countries is highly complex and under the influence of various factors which determine the policy context in which the policy is developed. Policy context, in both countries, is intertwined by political, economic, social and international factors as well as the culture, values, beliefs, experience, variety and number of the policy actors. Policy process in Turkey, on the account of CLT, can be described as more politicized, and bureaucratic, more straightforward without policy games, and serious conflicts among the policy actors, yet more constrained, top-down, closed, government oriented and elitist process in which democratic procedures were ignored. Wisconsin, on the other hand, demonstrates a more complex policy contexts nested in different levels of government and high number of interest and pressure groups competing with each other, and based on consensus building and participation in within the realms of pluralist tradition.


Experiences of education policy actors in relation to the role of the national education council in the process of policy-making
Kaya Kaşıkcı, Sevgi; Gökalp, Gökçe; Department of Educational Sciences (2016)
The purpose of this study is to examine how the National Education Council’s (NEC) participants experience the role of the NEC in the process of educational policy-making by considering the last three councils under the same political party. For this purpose, qualitative research design is applied. The sample of the study involves 15 participants including people from Ministry of National Education, academicians, principals, teachers, unions and policy analyst organizations who have attended more than one o...
Ersöz, Anıl; Kondakçı, Yaşar; Department of Educational Sciences (2021-9-30)
Readiness for change is vital for the success of any educational change initiative, and that is why there has been an increasing interest in the antecedents of readiness for change. However, there is a limited body of empirical research that sheds light on the role of teacher agency on readiness for change. Moreover, the influence of job satisfaction on readiness for change has remained unclear. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether teacher agency mediates the relationship between job satisfa...
Dynamics of Post-crisis Reform in Public Policy:The Case of Education Policy in Turkey
Bayırbağ, Mustafa Kemal (Springer, 2015-01-01)
This chapter aims to investigate how crises translate into major changes in public policy, in the case of education policy in Turkey. It is indicated that the post-crisis interventions of governments tend to redistribute the fiscal burden on public purse by employing a three-level preference set: economic policy priorities vs social policy priorities; among the sectors belonging to the same policy family; and among different levels/institutions of the same policy field. The chapter, thus, attempts to develo...
Baştürk, Mustafa; Akar, Hanife; Department of Curriculum and Instruction (2022-10)
One of the prerequisites for improving the quality of school education is to have high-quality education policies. In this context, scientific information from stakeholders on curricular policies can contribute to improving the calibre of educational policies. In line with this understanding, this study aimed to investigate the perceptions of three significant stakeholder groups – teachers, academicians and related government officials – regarding the curricular policymaking processes in Türkiye. This qual...
The Students' perceptions about e-learning in ahigher education institution in Turkey
Selman, Abdullah; Özkan Yıldırım, Sevgi; Özden, Yaşar; Department of Information Systems (2013)
E-learning is one of the common education types in Turkey elsewhere in the world because it has been a necessity for higher and continuous education of people but what about its quality? There are a diverse number of factors which affect the quality of e-learning education but one of the most important factors is the student. Because students are at the center of education and all of the teaching-learning operations are performed for them, their impressions are very important to gain idea about the quality ...
Citation Formats
F. Keser Aschenberger, “Dynamics of policy formation in Turkey and the U.S. : a comparative case study of two reform initiatives,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2012.