A Short fragment of ancient DNA and its use in determination of sheep mitochondrial dna haplogroups in Southeast Anatolia

Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad
Recent archaeozoological studies indicated that perhaps the oldest (11,000 years before present) and may be the only sheep domestication center was in Southeast Anatolia. In this study, to contribute to the understanding of sheep domestication history, ancient DNA derived from skeletal remains of sheep unearthed from archaeological sites in Turkey mainly from Oylum Höyük in Kilis were examined. 187 ancient metapodia and mandible samples, dating between 1,800-30 BCE were brought from Oylum Höyük to the dedicated aDNA laboratory which was established at the Middle East Technical University in 2012. Similarly, samples already identified as sheep (n=63), dating between 6,700-5,800 BCE from Tepecik-Çiftlik, Niğde were brought to the same aDNA laboratory. Ancient DNA extraction was performed using the samples identified as sheep by the archaeozoologists (n=57 for Oylum Höyük, n=13 for Tepecik-Çiftlik). Then, a 144 bp long mitochondrial DNA fragment which was shown to identify all five of the modern domestic sheep haplogroups A-E, was amplified. Success rates in extractions and amplifications were 65% for Oylum Höyük samples and 92.3% for Tepecik-Çiftlik samples. For 30 out of 37 samples from Oylum Höyük, aDNA amplifications were replicated. Postmortem nucleotide changes (misincorporations) and indels were inferred on the basis of replicated aDNA sequences and reference sequences from modern sheep samples. As the main result, aDNA sequences were used to estimate HPGs of sheep samples. The observed percentage of each haplogroup was: HPG A=50%, HPG B= 35.3%, HPG C=5.9%, HPG D=5.9%, HPG E=2.9% for Oylum Höyük and B= 83%, E= 17% for Tepecik-Çiftlik samples. When HPG distributions were examined comparatively with the accumulated data in the literature, it was observed that HPG B might be the dominating type around the sheep domestication center in the early days of domestication and HPG C frequency increased after the Hellenistic period around Kilis region. The present study being the first study from the sheep domestication center, besides contributing to the understanding of evolutionary history of domestic sheep in South/Southeast Anatolia, also shows that a short mtDNA fragment is useful to determine the HPGs of ancient sheep with respect to the HPGs observed in modern domestic sheep.


Understanding domestication process of sheep across Central and Western Anatolia by using ancient DNA
Özer, Onur; Somel, Mehmet; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (2017)
Several archaeological and genetic studies indicated that Southeastern Anatolia was the only center of domestication for sheep. The study presented here aims to understand how and when domestic sheep were transported across Anatolia into west from the domestication center by using ancient DNA. In order to achieve that, ancient DNA was extracted from 234 sheep bone samples dating between Epipaleolithic and 2800 BCE from 9 archaeological excavations (Tepecik-Çiftlik, Yeşilova, Ulucak, Aktopraklık, Barcın, Çat...
Ancient DNA isolation and mitochondrial DNA analysis of human samples from Çemialo Sırtı, Batman in Southeast Anatolia
Yaka, Reyhan; Togan, İnci Zehra; Department of Biology (2015)
The main purpose of the study was to obtain aDNA sequences of ancient human remains in the dedicated ancient DNA (aDNA) laboratory which was established at Middle East Technical University, in 2012. For this purpose, human samples approximately dating between 600-500 BC from Çemialo Sırtı excavation site in Batman in southeast Anatolia, were employed. aDNA extraction was performed using bone and teeth samples from 9 human skeletal remains. Then the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Hypervariable region I and Hyperv...
Exploring the evolutionary history of Anatolian neolithic sheep using modern and ancient genomics
Yurtman, Erinç; Somel, Mehmet; Department of Biology (2019)
The transition from hunting-gathering to sedentism happened in West Asia in the early Holocene, eventually giving way to the establishment of agriculture and livestock breeding. In this process, domestication of wild animals played crucial role for human settlements. The domestication center of sheep, among the main four livestock species, is thought to have been within Anatolia. Previous archaeozoological studies also suggested that after domestication this species migrated with human populations to other ...
Understanding migration of shhep from its domestication center in Southeast Anatolia to West Anatolia by using of ancient mtDNA: Preliminary results
Dağtaş, Dilşad; Yüncü, Eren; Özer, Füsun; Birand Özsoy, Ayşegül Ceren; Açan, Can; Akbaba, Ali; Özbal Gerrıtsen, Rana Deniz; İlgezdi Bertram, Gülçin; Gündem, Can Yümni; Pişkin, Evangelia; Somel, Mehmet; Çakan, Yasin Gökhan; Togan, İnci (null; 2017-07-11)
Sheep domestication started in Southeast Anatolia about 10 000 years before common era (BCE) and spread to from there to other regions by demic diffusion of managed/domesticated sheep, cultural diffusion or both. To contribute to the understanding of the process of sheep domestication and spread within Anatolia, ancient sheep bones were collected from three archaeological sites; Barcın Höyük (Bursa, 6500-2300 BCE), Tepecik Çiftlik Höyük (Niğde, 6850- 5800 BCE) and Yeşilova Höyük (İzmir, 6252-5800 BCE). Anci...
First Genomic Insights into Pre-pottery Neolithic of Upper Mesopotamia
Altınışık, Nefize Ezgi; Aydoğan, Ayça; Kazancı, Duygu Deniz; Vural, Kıvılcım Başak; Koptekin, Dilek; Özkan, Mustafa; Gemici, Hasan Can; Karamurat, Cansu; Erdal, Ömür Dilek; Götherström, Anders; Sürer, Elif; Atakuman, Çiğdem; Erim, Aslı; Özer, Füsun; Somel, Mehmet; Erdal, Yılmaz Selim (2021-06-01)
Recent studies showed that Neolithic populations in southwest Asia included distinct gene pools in the Levant, in Central Anatolia, and in the Zagros. Further, genomic comparisons suggested that all three populations adopted sedentism and farming without major admixture or replacement from other regions. Meanwhile, the population genetic characteristics of the geographic midpoint of these regions, namely upper Mesopotamia, has not been investigated so far. Here in this study, we present the first genomic da...
Citation Formats
N. D. Dağtaş, “A Short fragment of ancient DNA and its use in determination of sheep mitochondrial dna haplogroups in Southeast Anatolia,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2013.