How third grade female students and their mothers perceive gender stereotypes and parental restrictions based on gender stereotypic expectations: a within- culture comparison in Turkey

Işık, Hatice
The aim of the current study was to examine third-grade female Turkish students’ and their mothers’ perceptions on gender stereotypes and parental restriction based on gender stereotypic expectations considering within-culture differences (Ankara vs Mersin) and personal characteristics of mothers. 168 third grade female students and their mothers participated in the study (103 from Mersin and 65 from Ankara). BEM Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1981), Balanced Integration and Differentiation Scale (İmamoğlu, 1998; 2003), Emphatic Tendency Scale (Dökmen, 1988) and were given to mothers. In addition, children were asked to read six hypothetical scenarios related to gender stereotypes and to answer the following questions. The following questions included the evaluation and justification of three different situations Similarly, mothers filled out the adult version of those gender related questions. The results showed that as the individuation level of mothers increased and femininity level decreased, they showed more support for gender inconsistent situations. In addition, higher empathy scores of mothers predicted higher support for gender consistent situations. Individuation and femininity scores of mothers also significantly predicted their tolerance to gender based parental restriction. No within-culture differences were found. Finally, no significant relationship was found between the predictors and children’s evaluation on gender related situations. Mothers’ and children’s evaluation on gender consistent and inconsistent situations were correlated with each other. The types of justifications that the children and their mothers used for three different situations were given in the results section. Limitations and contributions of the study were discussed in light of the related literature.


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Citation Formats
H. Işık, “How third grade female students and their mothers perceive gender stereotypes and parental restrictions based on gender stereotypic expectations: a within- culture comparison in Turkey,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2014.