Empathy skills in middle childhood: the role of child’s temperament, parenting practices, and mother’s empathy

Yavaşlar, Yeşim
The main aim of the current study is to investigate the role of children’s temperamental characteristics (inhibitory control and perceptual sensitivity), parenting practices (maternal warmth, inductive reasoning, and positive expressivity), and maternal empathy (affective, cognitive, and behavioral) on children’s affective, cognitive, and behavioral empathy skills. In addition, the moderator role of children’s perceptual sensitivity and gender is examined separately between parenting practices, maternal empathy, and children’s empathy skills. For this purpose, a total of 362 3rd and 4th graders and their mothers were recruited from 6 primary schools in Çankaya-Ankara. Children’s temperament, parenting behaviors, maternal empathy, and children’s empathy skills were assessed by different questionnaires. In the study, three sets of hierarchical regression analyses were performed for each individual outcome (affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and prosocial motivation). For six hierarchical regression analyses, temperament of perceptual sensitivity was entered into analyses as a moderator variable in order to observe the possible interaction effects of perceptual sensitivity with each parenting behaviors as well as each maternal empathy types separately. For the last three hierarchical regressions, child’s gender was entered into analyses as a moderator variable in between maternal empathy and child’s empathy skills. The results indicated that each parenting practices and maternal cognitive empathy directly associated with children’s empathy skills. The moderator role of child’s perceptual sensitivity and gender was also significant for children’s empathy skills. Findings of the study, contributions, limitations, and future suggestions were discussed. 


The Relationship between mothers’ parenting styles and emotion understanding of children through the mediator role of children’s perceived parenting styles of their mothers
Çalışkan, Arzu; Şahin Acar, Başak; Department of Psychology (2015)
The aim of the current study is to examine the effects of parenting styles of mothers and children’s perceived maternal parenting styles on children’s emotion understanding skills. This relationship is explored via the mediator role of perceived parenting styles of children. We recruited 130 primary school second grade children and their mothers in this study. Data was collected from children in different elementary schools in Ankara, from upper middle SES schools. Kusche Emotion Inventory, EMBU child and p...
Prediction of parenting styles from child and maternal temperamental characteristics
Gölcük, Merve; Kazak Berument, Sibel; Department of Psychology (2014)
The purpose of the current study is to predict parenting styles from child and maternal temperamental characteristics in the scope of Goodness of Fit Theory. Participants were the mothers and teachers of 3 and 4 year-old children recruited from childcare centres in the low, middle and high class communities in Ankara. Mothers completed the scales assessing child temperament, adult temperament and parenting attitudes. Teachers completed the child temperament questionnaire. Three sets of hierarchical multiple...
The mediator role of parenting behaviors between children's witnessing interparental violence and children's coping with interpersonal and academic stressors
Sarıot, Özge; Fışıloğlu, Hürol; Department of Psychology (2011)
The study aims to investigate the role of parenting behaviors as a mediator, between children's witnessing of interparental violence and coping ways of children with interpersonal and academic stressors. For the purpose of assesment, The Conflict Tactic Scale Adapted for Italian Youngsters and The Question Set about Parental Abuse towards Children have been translated into Turkish and their psychometric properties therein were tested on 10-12 year-old children. With the same aged sample group which involved...
The Effect of background media on early childhood language development
Karakaya, Seçil; Kazak Berument, Sibel; Department of Psychology (2018)
The current study aimed to investigate the background media effect on toddlers’ language development and also the moderator role of child temperamental characteristics namely inhibitory control, attention shifting, attention focusing and perceptual sensitivity. In total, 100 mothers of children between the ages of 16-26 months (Mage = 20.18 months) participated. Two home visits were made. In the first visit, mothers filled out the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) to assess the child temperament...
Mothers’ perceived partner responsiveness indirecty predict implicit infant attitude through implicit partner attitude
Yalçıntaş, Sümeyra; Selçuk, Emre; Department of Psychology (2017)
The study is first to examine determinants of maternal implicit attitude. Based on the important role of perceived partner responsiveness on close-relationships and attachment theory, we suggested perceived partner responsiveness as the predictor of maternal implicit attitude. We expected that partner responsiveness to be associated with maternal implicit attitude through implicit partner attitude, maternal depression and distress. Importantly, we tested our hypothesis also for maternal explicit attitude to...
Citation Formats
Y. Yavaşlar, “Empathy skills in middle childhood: the role of child’s temperament, parenting practices, and mother’s empathy,” M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2016.