Assessing a model of cognitive test anxiety: the role of rumination, self-forgiveness, perfectionism cognitions, and cognitive defusion through the indirect effect of psychological flexibility

2017
Aydın, Gökçen
The aim of this study was to test a model investigating the role of rumination, self-forgiveness, perfectionism cognitions, and cognitive defusion in predicting cognitive test anxiety through the indirect effect of psychological flexibility. The sample included 715 (351 females and 364 males) students from a state university in Turkey. The data collection instruments used in the study were Demographic Information Form, Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale-Revised, State Self-Forgiveness Scale, Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory, Drexel Defusion Scale, Ruminative Response Scale and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. In the present study, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to test the hypothesized model. The results of the SEM analysis indicated that the model was significant in predicting cognitive test anxiety of college students. Considering the direct and indirect effects, the results showed that rumination had a positive relationship with cognitive test anxiety through the indirect effect of psychological flexibility. While self-forgiveness was related to psychological flexibility, it did not predict cognitive test anxiety directly and indirectly. Perfectionism cognitions was positively related to cognitive test anxiety through the indirect effect of psychological flexibility. Finally, cognitive defusion negatively predicted cognitive test anxiety through the indirect effect of psychological flexibility. The hypothesized model accounted for 36% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety. The findings were discussed in the light of relevant literature. In addition to implications for practice, research and recommendations for further research were presented.