Modern period urban heritage sites as fragmented contexts: conservation principles and strategies for the existing traces and components of Hermann Jansen’s Adana plan

Sağıroğlu, Tuğba
Conservation of the heritage of modern movement is a relatively recent issue, where the focus is mainly on the particular buildings more than the urban tissue as a whole. As a consequence, urban tissues of modern movement are destructed by various interventions, which make them highly fragmented or even lost totally. Thereupon, it becomes important to deal with the problem of fragmentation of the urban tissues of modern movement, re-trace their existing and lost components and conserve the existing ones by defining conservation principles and strategies. Following the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, in order to have a planned ‘modern’ country, plans were prepared for a number of major cities of the country, while only a few of them were implemented. In that period, a German architect and urban planner Hermann Jansen (1869-1945), appears to be a significant planner in Turkey. He prepared the plans for the major cities of the country: Ankara, the Capital City (1932), İzmir (1932), İzmit (1938), Mersin (1938), Gaziantep (1938) and Adana (1940). The plan prepared between 1935-1940 by Jansen for Adana, an important city in the southern Turkey, is an important example of his plans, following the urban planning approaches and attitudes of the period, i.e. modern movement period. It is also important for being one of few implemented plans. For Adana, an important city with fertile agricultural lands and large industrial zones, Jansen designed a city plan comprising factory sites with accommodation for workers, governmental and public buildings as well as residential and recreational areas. Adana is taken as a case study in this research because of the implementation of the plan in the city and for the situation that it is under threat of destruction currently. Because the project implementation site is located in the city centre, the area comprising modern architectural heritage became a focus of interest and after the act that allowed construction of high-rise blocks was put into force, it became threatened by demolishment and replacement with new buildings constantly. Hence, a process of rapid and extensive change in the city form and components occurred which resulted in the partial loss, deformation and fragmentation of the urban tissue of modern period that was developed according to Jansen Plan. Today, the urban tissue and components of the modern period are highly fragmented and thus, can be hardly observed within the contemporary city. Focusing on this case study, a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis based on data coming from visual and written archival and current documents, literary sources, aerial photos and site surveys was carried out. The aim of this thesis is to re-trace Hermann Jansen’s plan in the existing urban tissue; reveal the existing components of the plan; and define conservation principles and strategies for different types of existing components in such a fragmented context.