Leisure constraints and negotiation strategies in tourism recreation: a comperative research with different cultures

Tek, Tolga
The main problem of this study was to describe perceived constraints encountered and negotiation strategies utilized by foreign tourists in a recreational sport setting in different regions of Turkey. Moreover, discreteness in negotiation was examined according to gender, participation, the level and type of perceived constraint encountered. A questionnaire was conducted to a sample of randomly selected foreign tourists in different regions from Turkey. The modification study of Leisure Constraints Questionnaire which was developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997) perceived constraints, and negotiation studies conducted by Jackson and Rucks (1995) and Hubbard and Mannell (2001) was used as instrument in this study. Feedbacks to perceived constraints items were used to categorize the levels of perceived constraint experienced which were utilized to consider discreteness in negotiation. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted for each category of negotiation to determine if significant discreteness existed in negotiation based on level of perceived constraint, gender, and participation level in recreational activities. The sample of participants mostly reported absence of time and incapability to find v partner to participate as causes of nonparticipating in recreational activities. Data strengthens the view of negotiation as tourists with higher levels of perceived constraint were significantly more likely to utilize financial, time management and changing leisure aspiration negotiation strategies. Furthermore, regular participants of recreational activities were significantly more likely to utilize time management, interpersonal coordination, and physical fitness strategies to participate more than non-participants. More research is necessary to figure out how motivation to participate may affect negotiation and the process and how those providing recreational activity programs can facilitate the negotiation process.


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Citation Formats
T. Tek, “Leisure constraints and negotiation strategies in tourism recreation: a comperative research with different cultures,” Ph.D. - Doctoral Program, Middle East Technical University, 2018.