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Broadband solutions of potential integral equations with NSPWMLFMA

In this communication, a mixed-form multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) is combined with the recently introduced potential integral equations (PIEs), also called as the A-phi system, to obtain an efficient and accurate broadband solver that can be used for the solution of electromagnetic scattering from perfectly conducting surfaces over a wide frequency range including low frequencies. The mixed-form MLFMA uses the nondirective stable planewave MLFMA (NSPWMLFMA) at low frequencies and the conventional MLFMA at middle/ high frequencies. Various numerical examples are presented to assess the validity, efficiency, and accuracy of the developed solver.