Controlled release of aldicarb from carboxymethyl cellulose microspheres: in vitro and field applications

Kok, FN
Arica, MY
Gencer, O
Abak, Kazım
Hasırcı, Vasıf Nejat
Aldicarb is a carbamate pesticide that is widely used throughout the world in the protection Of crops (eg cotton, nuts, potatoes, onion, tobacco, sugar beet and sugar cane). In Turkey, especially in the Cukurova region, it is used for the control of the cotton white fly (Bemisia tabaci) which attacks cotton plants cultivated in this region. Aldicarb contamination in surface and ground water is a serious problem in several countries, partly due to its high water solubility. It is also highly toxic to mammals. In order to overcome these problems, microspheres of aldicarb were prepared using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the biodegradable support material cross-linked with aluminium chloride. A strong hysteresis behaviour was observed upon drying and reswelling. Encapsulation efficiency was in the range 12-23% and aldicarb contents of 5.7-10.3 mg per 100mg of microspheres was achieved. In vitro release was distinctly Fickian, and Higuchi constants were very close to 0.5. Release in pots revealed that only one sample had a release capability for more than four weeks. In the cotton plot much longer durations of release (more than seven weeks) were observed while a commercial granular formulation released its content immediately. It was thus possible to construct a controlled pesticide release system that prolonged the bioavailability to about eight weeks. (C) 1999 Society of Chemical Industry.


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Water soluble derivatives of cellulose are widely used in various biomedical and biotechnological applications. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was insolubilized in the form of microspheres using aluminium chloride as the crosslinking agent. It was observed that, depending on the preparation medium pH, the spherical product could either be a microsphere with an ionotropic interior or a microcapsule. Various microspheres with different crosslinker, biopolymer, and drug (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein and aldicarb)...
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Nickel (Ni) toxicity in agricultural crops is a widespread problem while little is known about the role of biochar (BC) and other organic amendments like farm manure (FM) from cattle farm and compost (Cmp) on its alleviation. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BC, Cmp and FM on physiological and biochemical characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under Ni stress. Maize was grown in Ni spiked soil without and with two rates of the amendments (equivalent to 1% and 2% organic carbo...
Controlled release of aldicarb from lignin loaded ionotropic hydrogel microspheres
Kok, FN; Wilkins, RM; Cain, RB; Arica, MY; Alaeddinoglu, G; Hasırcı, Vasıf Nejat (1999-09-01)
Aldicarb loaded microspheres of carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC, of various compositions were prepared with the crosslinking action of AI(III). Into these microspheres, lignin was introduced as a filler to further regulate the rate of release. The encapsulation efficiency was low (4.15-13.00%) due to the high water solubility of aldicarb. Release into aqueous media was quite rapid and almost complete within 24h. Initial stages of the release (60% of AS released) was investigated to determine the release mechan...
Citation Formats
F. Kok, M. Arica, O. Gencer, K. Abak, and V. N. Hasırcı, “Controlled release of aldicarb from carboxymethyl cellulose microspheres: in vitro and field applications,” PESTICIDE SCIENCE, pp. 1194–1202, 1999, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: