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Finite element simulation of quench hardening

In this study, an efficient finite element model for predicting the temperature field, volume fraction of phases and the evolution of internal stresses up to the residual stress states during quenching of axisymmetrical steel components is developed and implemented. The temperature distribution is determined by considering heat losses to the quenching medium as well as latent heat due to phase transformations. Phase transformations are modelled by discretizing the cooling cuves in a succession of isothermal steps and using the IT-diagrams. For diffusional transformations both Scheil's additivity method and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation are used, while Koistinen-Marburger equation is employed for martensitic transformation. Internal stresses are determined by a small strain elasto-plastic analysis using Prandtl-Reuss constitutive equations. Considering long cylinders, a generalized plane strain condition is assumed. The computational model is verified by several experimental measurements and by comparison with other known numerical results. Case studies are performed with St50, Ck45 and C60 type of solid and hollow steel components. The complete data and result sets provided for the verification examples establish a basis for benchmark problems in this field.