Women and the city: female empowerment in the world, 1960-2014

It is vital to understand the structural and institutional dynamics behind female empowerment as its realization benefits not only women but also society at large. Drawing on an original, global-level dataset that covers 169 countries between 1960-2014, this article mainly explores the effect of urbanization onwomen's empowerment throughout the world. The article argues that urbanization has distinctive effects in different realms of female empowerment in politics, economics, and education, with the biggest impact being in education. The article further states that urbanization has a non-linear effect on women's empowerment with a diminishing impact at higher levels of urbanization. After certain levels of urbanization, other political and economic factors, such as how democratic and economically affluent a country is, will determine the discrepancies of female empowerment in countries with similar levels of urbanization. To further test the stated hypotheses, the article looks at the Turkish case as a typical example of a patriarchal society with a neoliberal economic order. In light of the global and local level analyses, the paper aims to contribute to extant debates and studies in feminist studies, urban studies, modernization theory, and democratization.


Married to Anatolian Tigers: business masculinities, relationalities, and limits to empowerment
Akyuz, Selin; Sayan-Cengiz, Feyda; Çırakman Deveci, Aslı; Cindoglu, Dilek (Informa UK Limited, 2019-01-01)
This paper examines business masculinities and relationalities of empowerment in the everyday life experiences of male entrepreneurs and wives of entrepreneurs in three urban centers in Turkey: Gaziantep, Konya and zmir. We take gendered power inequalities as structural and relational, and empowerment as a complex, multifaceted process. Based on a relational understanding of gender roles, we scrutinize men's and women's decision making areas in an attempt to understand normalized and internalized patriarcha...
Women and trade unions : participation and resistance in patriarchal organizations
Damarlı, Nihan; Aslan Akman, Canan; Department of Gender and Women's Studies (2014)
The purpose of this study is to examine unionist women‟s strategies of resistance to patriarchal power relations within trade unions through interviews conducted with a selected group of women unionists, in order to answer the question “how do women resist, survive, challenge, and overcome the manifestations of patriarchal power relations in trade unions?” Women unionists face certain restrictions that hinder their equal participation and representation in trade unions, develop individual and/or collective ...
Women under the hegemony of body politics : fashion and beauty
Karacan, Elifcan; Akçay, Ali Adnan; Department of Gender and Women's Studies (2007)
This thesis aims to investigate women’s oppression through analyzing the overlapping features of hegemonic ideology of beauty and fashion. The major goal of the study is to examine how beauty ideology is constructed and how it is practiced in the case of fashion. Additionally, the intersecting discourses of capitalist system and patriarchy have been questioned to understand women’s oppression, as suggested by Dual-System theorists. Therefore, throughout the study, the common interests of capitalist and patr...
Women’s changing experiences with patriarchy during rural transformation of Turkey: a case study in a central anatolian town Avanos
Gönüllü Atakan, Ayşe; Hoşgör, Hatice Ayşe; Department of Sociology (2014)
This thesis is a qualitative study on women’s changing patriarchal experiences after 1980s during rural transformation process of a central Anatolian district –Avanos- from a feminist perspective. The main argument of this research that patriarchy and capitalism are the main sources of women’s oppression today, and a change in one affects the other closely. According to the findings of the research, the organization, control and intensity of both productive and reproductive labour of women determine the pat...
Women entrepreneurship in local economic development: women producer bazaars as an alternative organizational model
Çağlar, Ayşe Gülgü; Kayasü, Serap; Department of City and Regional Planning (2019)
The objective of this study is to discuss cases of Women Producer Bazaars as an alternative organization model for women entrepreneurship. The thesis goes beyond the linear relationship between women entrepreneurshipand local economic development where the organization of the women entrepreneurship is an important critical factor. In Turkey, women entrepreneurship is supported by governmental policy and by local governments; municipalities as well as different non-governmental organizations. In Turkey, ther...
Citation Formats
S. K. Çınar, “Women and the city: female empowerment in the world, 1960-2014,” TURKISH STUDIES, pp. 177–199, 2019, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://hdl.handle.net/11511/34855.