From mg/kg to pg/kg Levels: A Story of Trace Element Determination: A Review

Bakirdere, S.
Bakirdere, E. G.
Yıldırım, Erdoğan
Arslan, Y.
Determination of the trace elements in a variety of environmental samples is of great importance. Most elements, including iron, calcium, and selenium, are crucial for the regulation of human mechanisms, and many others, like lead and cadmium, are toxic even at trace levels. Some elements, like selenium, have a narrow margin of safety. Hence, determination of elements at trace levels is crucial in any matrix related to humans. Trace element determination requires sufficiently sensitive procedures to monitor trace levels. This review aims to highlight not only the development in instrumentation for ultratrace element determination in variety of matrices but the application of developed techniques. Advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are also discussed.


Differentiation of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Garip, Sebnem; Bozoglu, Faruk; Severcan, Feride (SAGE Publications, 2007-02-01)
In the present study the characterization and differentiation of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Our results showed significant differences between the FT-IR spectra of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria. The protein-to-lipid ratio was significantly higher for thermophiles compared to mesophiles. The absorption intensity of the CH3 asymmetric stretching vibration was higher in thermophilic bacteria, indicating a change in the...
Surface-enhanced Raman of dopamine and neurotransmitters using sol-gel substrates and polymer-coated fiber-optic probes
Volkan, Mürvet; Vo-Dinh, T (SAGE Publications, 2000-12-01)
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is used to detect catecholamines-viz., dopamine, norepinephrine, epinine, and isoproterenol-using a new substrate prepared with sol-gel technology. Catecholamines are complexed at the surface by iron(III) ions, which were introduced during the reduction of the silver ions embedded inside the sol-gel matrix. With the use of a He-Ne laser at a power of only 12 mW, it is possible to measure dopamine in the micromolar concentration range. A single-fiber SERS probe syst...
Concentration-Based Measurement Studies of L-Tryptophan Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS)
Ozer, Zeynep; Gok, Seher; Altan, Hakan; Severcan, Feride (SAGE Publications, 2014-01-01)
L-Tryptophan is an extremely important amino acid for a variety of biological functions in living organisms. In this study we were able to measure changes in the concentration of L-tryptophan when incorporated into pellets with polyethylene as a host. The changes were measured both through the characteristic absorption bands of the C11 and C12 bonds in the low terahertz frequency range and using changes in the refractive index where pellets with higher concentrations of L-tryptophan showed higher refractive...
Characterization of denture acrylic resin surfaces modified by glow discharges
Suzer, S; Ozden, N; Akaltan, F; Akovali, G (SAGE Publications, 1997-11-01)
Resin samples prepared by compression molding using a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base material were exposed to radio-frequency (rf) glow discharges to improve the wettability of the material. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) reflectance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact-angle measurements have been employed to characterize the changes introduced by the glow discharge plasma. FT-IR measurements cannot detect any modification. XPS reveals an increase in the O/C atomic ratio....
Optimization of ETV-ICP(TOF)MS and transient signal profiles for reducing isobaric interferences
Ertaş, Gülay (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2005-01-01)
One of the advantages of the ETV sample introduction is the ability to temporally separate analyte elements in complex mixtures by differences in their vaporization temperatures within the ETV for ICPMS. However, the broadening of the transient peaks in the transport tubing often obscures this temporal resolution. This study shows that decreasing the transport tubing diameter produces little broadening beyond that produced during aerosol production in the ETV. Maintaining such narrow peaks through the trans...
Citation Formats
S. Bakirdere et al., “From mg/kg to pg/kg Levels: A Story of Trace Element Determination: A Review,” APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY REVIEWS, pp. 38–66, 2011, Accessed: 00, 2020. [Online]. Available: